Standards Glossary

The purpose of this glossary is to help the user better understand the terminology used in the Colorado Academic Standards. It is intended to assist educational practitioners and pre-service educators in understanding the standards. It is not intended as a study guide for students nor does it represent a comprehensive list of all academic terms.

Content Area:

Use the alphabetical list to view glossary terms by first letter.

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z 

A -

AB

A form in dance. A two part compositional form with an A theme and a B theme. The binary form consists of two distinct self-contained sections that share either a character or quality: the same tempo, movement quality, or style.

Content Area: Dance

ABA

A form in dance. A three-part compositional form in which the second section contrasts with the first section. The third section is a restatement of the first section in a condensed, abbreviated, or extended form.

Content Area: Dance

abiotic

Refers to the non living portion of the environment.

Content Area: Science

absolute value

A number's distance from zero on a number line: absolute value of -6, shown as |-6|, is 6; and the absolute value of 6, shown as |6|, is 6.

Content Area: Mathematics

absolute value function

Defined as the function f(x) = |x|.

Content Area: Mathematics

abstinence

Not engaging in sexual intercourse of any type.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

abstract

To remove movement from a particular or representative context, and by manipulating it with elements of space, time and force, create a new sequence or dance that retains the essence of the original.

Content Area: Dance

abstract

Not representing or imitating external reality or the objects of nature.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

abstract

Artwork in which the subject matter is stated in a brief, simplified manner. Little or no attempt is made to represent images realistically, and objects are often simplified or distorted.

Content Area: Visual Arts

abstract dance

A plot less work composed of pure dance movements, although the composition may suggest a mood or subject.

Content Area: Dance

absurdism

Theatre of the Absurd: A form of drama that emphasizes the nuances of human existence by employing disjointed, repetitious, and meaningless actions.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

accelerando

Accelerating, getting gradually faster.

Content Area: Music

accent

A stress or emphasis on a specific beat or movement.

Content Area: Dance

accidentals

Sharps, flats, naturals, introduced apart from the key signature.

Content Area: Music

accompaniment

A musical part (vocal or instrumental) that supports or provides background for other musical parts.

Content Area: Music

accuracy

In speaking and writing, the grammatical and lexical precision of the message produced; in listening and reading, this refers to how well the received message has been understood.

Content Area: World Languages

acquaintance rape

Forced intercourse by a person known to the victim who is not related by blood or marriage.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

action

Events within the play that move the plot along.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

action-reaction

Newton's third law of motion states that forces always occur in pairs. Every action is accompanied by a reaction of equal magnitude but opposite direction.

Content Area: Science

adagio

Tempo: slow, slower than andante and faster than largo.

Content Area: Music

adapt

To make suitable to or fit for a specific use.

Content Area: Social Studies

addition and subtraction within 5, 10, 20, 100, or 1000

Addition or subtraction of two whole numbers with whole number answers, and with sum or minuend in the range 0-5, 0-10, 0-20, or 0-100, respectively: 8 + 2 = 10 is an addition within 10, 14 – 5 = 9 is a subtraction within 20, and 55 – 18 = 37 is a subtraction within 100.

Content Area: Mathematics

additive identity property of 0

A property of addition which states that the sum of zero any number is the given number: a + 0= 0+ a = a).

Content Area: Mathematics

additive inverses

Two numbers whose sum is 0 are additive inverses of one another: 3/4 and – 3/4 are additive inverses of one another because 3/4 + (– 3/4) = (– 3/4) + 3/4 = 0.

Content Area: Mathematics

adventure activities

Physical activities centered in natural settings: orienteering, backpacking, hiking, rope activities, canoeing, cycling, skating, and rock climbing. See also: outdoor adventure activities.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

advocacy

The process by which the actions of individuals or groups attempt to bring about change on behalf of the particular health goal, program, interest, individual, or population.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

advocacy skills

The ability to communicate, encourage, and promote healthy norms and behaviors to support healthy choices.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

aerobic activity

Exercise that can be performed for a long duration because the energy required can be provided by the burning of fuel, which normally occurs in muscle cells in the presence of oxygen: dancing, cycling, jogging, power walking, in-line skating, step aerobics, distance swimming, Nordic skiing, kickboxing, and super circuit.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

aesthetic

Qualities or experience derived from or based upon the senses and how they are affected or stimulated.

Content Area: Dance

aesthetic criteria

Standards used for assessing the effectiveness of visual form: the quality of the physical perception, emotional makeup of the viewer, and the context in which a particular image is being experienced.

Content Area: Visual Arts

aesthetic criteria

Standards by which to judge a work of art or performance.

Content Area: Dance

aesthetic inquiry

Asking questions about works of art; describing and evaluating the media, processes, and meanings of works of art; and making comparative judgments.

Content Area: Visual Arts

aesthetic judgment

Visual imagary assessment and decision-making about the value of the art form. It is relative, never absolute, and depends upon the character of the form, needs of the viewer, and the environment.

Content Area: Visual Arts

aesthetic judgment

Dance performance assessment and decision making about the value of the art form. These are relative, never absolute, and depend upon the character of the form, needs of the participant, and the environment.

Content Area: Dance

aesthetic principles

Considerations that guide a choreographer in the creation of a dance: balance, climax, contrast, harmony, proportion, repetition, sequence, transition, unity, and variety.

Content Area: Dance

aesthetic qualities

Cues within artwork, such as literal, visual, and expressive qualities, which are examined during the art criticism process.

Content Area: Visual Arts

aesthetic response

Viewer’s reply, answer, or reaction to artwork after studying the work, describing, analyzing, and interpreting.

Content Area: Visual Arts

aesthetic valuing

Making personal value judgments based on aesthetic criteria.

Content Area: Visual Arts

aesthetics

An idea or set of criteria for what is beautiful or artistic.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

aesthetics

The branch of philosophy dealing with such notions as the beautiful, the ugly, the sublime, the comic, and the principles of underlying judgments about works of art.

Content Area: Music

aesthetics

A branch of philosophy that focuses on the nature of beauty, the nature and value of art, and the inquiry processes and human responses associated with those topics.

Content Area: Visual Arts

aggression

Any type of harassment or bullying: teasing, telling lies, making fun of someone, making rude or mean comments, spreading rumors, or making threatening comments.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

agility

The ability to change the position of one’s body smoothly and to control one’s body’s movements; moving with ease or kinetic flow.

Content Area: Dance

agility

The ability to change the position of one’s body smoothly and to control one’s body’s movements; moving with ease or kinetic flow.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

AIDS

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; a disease of the body's immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) characterized by the death of CD4 cells, which leaves the body vulnerable to life-threatening conditions.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

algebraic methods

A problem-solving approach that uses symbols to describe relationships.

Content Area: Mathematics

algorithm

A step-by-step procedure that will produce an answer for a given class of problems.

Content Area: Mathematics

alignment

Body placement or posture; proper alignment lessens body strain and promotes dance skills.

Content Area: Dance

allegro

Tempo: quick; lively.

Content Area: Music

alliteration

The repetition of initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

allocation

The process of distributing resources for the production of goods and services, and of distributing goods and services for consumption.

Content Area: Social Studies

alternate interior angles

Interior angles lying on opposite sides of a transversal that cuts two lines.

Content Area: Mathematics

anaerobic activity

Exercise of short duration that is performed at a more strenuous level, so increased respiration and heart rate cannot provide sufficient oxygen to the muscle cells. Used to build muscle mass and to improve one’s ability to move quickly and to deliver force: sprinting, weight training, curl-ups, gymnastics, softball and football.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

analyze

To examine the pieces or details of an issue; to classify, divide, or break down the parts of a whole.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

andante

Tempo: moving along, flowing, at a walking pace, faster than adagio but slower than allegretto.

Content Area: Music

anecdotal evidence

Short account of a particular incident or event that is not scientific or is hearsay and therefore considered unreliable.

Content Area: Science

antibiotic resistance

An adaptation of bacteria that allows them to survive in previously lethal antibiotics.

Content Area: Science

arabesque

A position in which the dancer stands on one leg, straight or bent, with the other extended to the back at 90 degrees.

Content Area: Dance

architecture

The planning and creating of buildings.

Content Area: Visual Arts

area

The number of square units that covers a surface.

Content Area: Mathematics

area model

A model of multiplication where the dimensions represent the factors and the area represents the product.

Content Area: Mathematics

argument

A reasoned, logical way of demonstrating that the writer’s position, belief, or conclusion is valid.  Arguments are used to change the reader’s point of view, to bring about some action on the reader’s part, or to ask the reader to accept the writer’s explanation or evaluation of a concept, issue, or problem.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

arithmetic sequence

A sequence of numbers in which the difference between successive terms is constant.

Content Area: Mathematics

arpeggio

In instrumental music, a broken chord played from the top down or from the bottom up.

Content Area: Music

arrangement

A new form or version of an existing musical work.

Content Area: Music

array

A set of objects in a specific arrangement.

Content Area: Science

art concepts

Theories and ideas about art and how it contributes to human growth, how it may be understood in terms of styles and techniques, and how it rests on philosophical and aesthetic assumptions about making art.

Content Area: Visual Arts

art criticism

Skill of studying, understanding, and judging artworks. Can consist of four stages: description, analysis, interpretation, and judgment.

Content Area: Visual Arts

art element

Components that comprise a work of art: line, color, value, shape, texture, form, and space

Content Area: Visual Arts

art form

1 The shape and structure of fine arts activity. 2 The organization of the components comprising a work of art into a distinct order. 3 A product or process of dance, music, theatre, or visual arts.

Content Area: Visual Arts

art skills

Abilities required to conceive, design, and produce works of art through the manipulation and control of tools, materials, and media.

Content Area: Visual Arts

art work

The outcome product or result of using a creative process to produce/delineate objects and or images produced or intended primarily for aesthetic purposes and to communicate ideas through visual language.

Content Area: Visual Arts

articulation

The clear delivery of speech or language utilizing all of the articulators: lips, teeth, tongue, soft and hard palettes, larynx, and glottis.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

articulation

In music, the way notes are joined to one another, or specifically performed, when forming a musical line: staccato, legato, tenuto, glissando, slur, phrase mark, accents, sforzandos, rinforzandos.

Content Area: Music

artist

A person who intentionally endeavors to make artworks, composing subject matter, using art elements, principles, techniques, procedures and materials.

Content Area: Visual Arts

artistic choices

Selections made about situations, action, direction, and design in order to convey meaning.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

artistic style

Way of expression shared by an individual artist or a group of artists.

Content Area: Visual Arts

associative property

A property of addition or multiplication in which the regrouping of the addends or factors does not change the outcome of the operations: (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) and (ab)c = a(bc).

Content Area: Mathematics

assumptions

Information or beliefs we take for granted.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

atherosclerotic plaque

A buildup of fatty substances on in the inner lining of arterial walls.

Content Area: Science

attitude

Beliefs and values about an issue or behavior based on the source of information, the feelings and emotions associated with the issue or behavior, and past experiences.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

attribute

A characteristic of an object, such as color, shape, or size.

Content Area: Mathematics

attributes

Characteristics, traits, features, aspects, elements that are specific and particular to someone or something: a lion’s mane and paws, a zebra’s stripes and hooves.

Content Area: Visual Arts

auditory

The sense of hearing.

Content Area: Dance

augmented (triads)

Uses the symbol "+" or "aug." and is formed by playing the first note (root) + third note + sharped fifth (#5th) of a major scale.

Content Area: Music

aural

Of, relating to, or perceived by the ear.

Content Area: Music

authentic

Designed by and for use by members of the target language and culture group.

Content Area: World Languages

authentic resources

Texts produced originally in a language other than English, by members of the target language and culture group, for members of the same language and culture group: fiction, nonfiction, poetry, drama, essays, advertisements, articles, films, or multimedia.

Content Area: World Languages

authoritarian government

Characterized by highly concentrated and centralized power maintained by political repression and the exclusion of potential challengers.

Content Area: Social Studies

authority

Right to control or direct actions of others, because of law, morality, custom or consent; could also be a person or persons in control.

Content Area: Social Studies

author's purpose

Purpose is the goal or objective you are trying to accomplish; the intention or reason for writing a text: to persuade, to entertain, to describe, to explain.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

autoimmune disease

An immune system response to antigens in a person’s own tissue.

Content Area: Science

autotroph

An organism that is able to make its own food.

Content Area: Science

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