Standards Glossary

The purpose of this glossary is to help the user better understand the terminology used in the Colorado Academic Standards. It is intended to assist educational practitioners and pre-service educators in understanding the standards. It is not intended as a study guide for students nor does it represent a comprehensive list of all academic terms.

Content Area:

Use the alphabetical list to view glossary terms by first letter.

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z 

C -

call and response

A choreographic form in which one soloist or group performs, with the second soloist or group entering in response to the first.

Content Area: Dance

caloric needs

The amount of calories (expressed in kilocalories) one must consume in order for adequate energy to be available to maintain normal body functions.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

calorie

The unit of measure used to describe the amount of energy provided by food. Scientifically, the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

cancer

Diseases in which abnormal cells divide uncontrollably and are able to invade other tissues through the blood and lymph systems.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

canon

A form in dance. A sequence in which identical movement phrases are begun by different dancers successively, so that the phrases overlap, as with a musical “round”.

Content Area: Dance

capital

Can be defined as money and sometimes used to include an asset.

Content Area: Social Studies

carbon cycle

The circulation of carbon, where carbon atoms from carbon dioxide are incorporated into organic compounds in plants during photosynthesis. Organic compounds are then oxidized into carbon dioxide during respiration by plants, or animals which eat those plants, releasing the carbon back to atmosphere to continue the cycle.

Content Area: Science

cardio-respiratory endurance

The ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to function efficiently while exercising.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

cardiovascular endurance

A health-related fitness component that relates to the ability of the circulatory and respiratory system to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

carrying capacity

The maximum population size that can be supported by the available resources of a given area.

Content Area: Science

Cartesian system

A coordinate system in which the coordinates of a point are its distances from a set of perpendicular lines that intersect at an origin: two lines in a plane or three in space.

Content Area: Mathematics

categorical data

Data that are "words" that represent possible responses within a given category: favorite pet: dog, cat, fish.

Content Area: Mathematics

causation

The act that produces an effect, where the effect is understood to be a consequence of the act.

Content Area: Science

ceramic

Pottery and any of a number of art forms made from clay products.

Content Area: Visual Arts

character

A person, animal, or thing in a scene, story, or play.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

character development

Creating a character from a text who uses tactics to overcome obstacles to achieve objectives through choices in physical action, vocal qualities, and believable emotions that are sustained throughout the performance.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

character-based languages

Languages that use characters (as opposed to letters) in their writing systems: Chinese, Japanese, Korean.

Content Area: World Languages

characteristic

A property or feature of an object or organism.

Content Area: Science

chemical change

A chemical reaction where a new substance is created.

Content Area: Science

chemical families

A vertical column in the periodic table, also called groups, where the elements often have similar properties and exhibit a clear trend in properties down the group.

Content Area: Science

chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

Simple gaseous compounds that contain carbon, chlorine and fluorine, that have been shown to be a major cause of stratospheric ozone depletion.

Content Area: Science

chord

A group of notes, normally two or more, played simultaneously.

Content Area: Music

choreography

A creation or compilation of steps, patterns, and movements which make up a dance or a dance routine.

Content Area: Dance

circuits

A closed path followed or capable of being followed by an electric current.

Content Area: Science

circumference

The distance around a circle; the formula for circumference of a circle is pi times the diameter: C = TTd.

Content Area: Mathematics

circumlocute

Talking around a word or phrase through definition or description. This technique is usually employed when the speaker/writer or listener/reader does not know the word or phrase.

Content Area: World Languages

citizen

A native or naturalized member of a state or other political community.

Content Area: Social Studies

citizenship

The process to become a member of a state or other political community.

Content Area: Social Studies

civic engagement

Individual and collective actions designed to identify and address issues of public concern.

Content Area: Social Studies

civic participation

The act of becoming involved in the political process — staying informed, voting, staying in touch with elected representatives, and working to better the community.

Content Area: Social Studies

civic responsibility

Can include participation in government and other associations such as in advocacy for various causes: political, economic, civil, environmental or quality of life issues.

Content Area: Social Studies

civil discourse

Engagement in respectful conversation intended to enhance understanding.

Content Area: Social Studies

civility

The act of showing respect for others and their opinions.

Content Area: Social Studies

clarity

The ability to execute each step in a dance clearly and completely.

Content Area: Dance

classification

The systematic grouping of organisms into categories on the basis of evolutionary or structural relationships between them; taxonomy.

Content Area: Science

classroom instrument

Instruments typically used in the general music classroom: recorders, chorded zithers, mallets, simple percussion, fretted, keyboards, electronic.

Content Area: Music

clef

A graphical symbol placed on the left of the stave which establishes the relationship between particular note names and their position on the staff lines and spaces. The clef sign always appears at the beginning of every staff line and in the first bar (measure) if a change of clef occurs. The most common clefs are treble, alto, tenor and bass.

Content Area: Music

climate change

A long-term alteration in weather patterns.

Content Area: Science

climax

1 Sequential arrangement to achieve a key statement or intensity. 2 The portion of the composition given primary emphasis or representing culmination. 3 The most intense or highest point in the development or resolution of choreography.

Content Area: Dance

clone

1 A group of cells derived from a single cell by asexual reproduction and therefore identical to the first cell. 2 An organism produced asexually, either naturally or by means: taking cuttings from a plant.

Content Area: Science

closed system

Allows energy (heat and light) but not matter, to cross its system boundary.

Content Area: Science

cluster

On a plot, a group of data "clustering" close to the same value, away from other data.

Content Area: Mathematics

coda

A closing passage generally added to the end of a composition.

Content Area: Music

cognates

A word that looks like a word in another language and has a similar meaning.

Content Area: World Languages

coherent

In reference to a text, one in which all the parts are consistent and logically related.

Content Area: World Languages

collage

A way of making a work of art by gluing different objects, materials, and textures to a surface.

Content Area: Visual Arts

collective memory

Shared remembrance(s) that develop(s) over time, held by a group of people and passed from one generation to the next.

Content Area: Social Studies

colloquial language

Characteristic of or appropriate to ordinary or familiar conversation rather than formal speech or writing; informal conversation.

Content Area: World Languages

color

The visual sensation dependent on the reflection or absorption of light from a given surface. The three characteristics of color are hue, value, and intensity.

Content Area: Visual Arts

combative activities

A group of physical activities that utilize basic combative skills of pulling, pushing, stands, and guards: wrestling, fencing, boxing, kickboxing, martial arts, and self-defense.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

combustion reaction

Reaction of a substance with oxygen in which energy is released.

Content Area: Science

command economy

An economy in which economic decisions are made largely by an authority/authorities such as a government planning agency.

Content Area: Social Studies

command socialism

An economic system where the means of production are publicly owned and the fundamental economic choices are made by the central authority.

Content Area: Social Studies

commedia dell'arte

Professional form of theatrical improvisation, developed in Italy in the 1500s, featuring stock characters and standardized plots.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

common ancestor

The most recent organism which is ancestral to two or more other organisms.

Content Area: Science

common good

Benefit or interest of a politically organized society as a whole.

Content Area: Social Studies

communication

Movement which is designed to tell a story, theme or idea, feeling or expression: literal, non-literal, non-verbal, verbal.

Content Area: Dance

communism

Political philosophy or ideology advocating holding the production of resources collectively.

Content Area: Social Studies

community

A group of interdependent populations occupying an area.

Content Area: Science

commutative property

A property of addition or multiplication in which the sum or product stays the same when the order of the addends or factors is changed: a + b = b + a and ab = ba.

Content Area: Mathematics

competition

Encompasses the notion of individuals and firms striving for a greater share of a market to sell or buy goods and services.

Content Area: Social Studies

complementary angles

Two angles that have a sum of 90 degrees.

Content Area: Mathematics

complemetary color

Colors opposite one another on the color wheel: red/green, blue/orange, and yellow/violet.

Content Area: Visual Arts

complex carbohydrates

Molecules formed of repeating units of either mono- or di-saccharides joined together by glycosidic bonds.

Content Area: Science

complex fraction

A fraction a/b where a and/or b are fractions and b is nonzero.

Content Area: Mathematics

complex number system

Set of numbers including imaginary and real numbers.

Content Area: Mathematics

complex numbers

Numbers that can be written in the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers and i = v-1: 2.7 + 8.9i.

Content Area: Mathematics

components

The parts of a whole composition.

Content Area: Visual Arts

components of health-related physical fitness

Aerobic capacity, body composition, flexibility, muscle endurance, and muscle strength.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

composite number

A whole number with greater than two factors.

Content Area: Mathematics

composite shapes

A shape composed of one or more geometric shapes.

Content Area: Mathematics

composition

Arranging elements of visual arts using the principles of design of visual art to create a piece of artwork. The way individual design elements are combined to express a particular idea.

Content Area: Visual Arts

compound

A pure substance composed of two or more elements whose composition is constant. Properties of a compound are usually unlike those of its constituents.

Content Area: Science

compound events

A combination of simple events.

Content Area: Mathematics

computation algorithm

A set of predefined steps applicable to a class of problems that gives the correct result in every case when the steps are carried out correctly. See also: computation strategy.

Content Area: Mathematics

computation strategy

Purposeful manipulations that may be chosen for specific problems, may not have a fixed order, and may be aimed at converting one problem into another. See also: computation algorithm.

Content Area: Mathematics

computer models

A computer program that represents the dynamic responses of a system using a mathematical description.

Content Area: Science

computerized tomography (CT)

A system for building up a three-dimensional image of the organs inside the body, using a scanning device that takes a number of X-ray photographs at slightly different angles as the scanner rotates.

Content Area: Science

conception

The implantation of the fertilized egg.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

conceptual

Pertaining to concepts. More specifically, art possessing imagery that departs from perceptual accuracy to present a conception of the object, rather than its appearance alone.

Content Area: Visual Arts

conceptualize

Have an idea for.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

conclusion

A judgment or decision reached by reasoning and based on available data and evidence.

Content Area: Science

conditional probability

The probability of an event A occurring given that an event B has occurred.

Content Area: Mathematics

conflict

A struggle between two or more opposing forces, events, ideas, characters in a scene or play.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

conflict management

The process of identifying and addressing differences and working to resolve them.

Content Area: Social Studies

conflict resolution

The process of expressing concerns and interests and solving problems in a peaceful and productive way for the mutual benefit of all involved parties.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

congruent

Two plane or solid figures are congruent if one can be obtained from the other by rigid motion: a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations.

Content Area: Mathematics

connotation

An idea that is implied or suggested.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

constitution

A written or unwritten plan for government.

Content Area: Social Studies

consumer

People who buy and use goods and services; also called buyers.

Content Area: Social Studies

context

The presence of meaning and situations from the world outside the classroom in an instructional approach, method, or classroom activity.

Content Area: World Languages

contracetives/contraception

A medically acceptable method for preventing pregnancy by interfering with the normal process of ovulation, fertilization, and implantation that include barrier methods such as condoms; hormonal methods such as the Pill, Depo Provera, NuvaRing, and emergency contraception; intrauterine devices (IUDs); and surgical sterilization.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

contrast

The use of movements with different or opposite dynamics, shapes, or use of space.

Content Area: Dance

converse

Given the statement "if P, then Q", the converse is "if Q, then P".

Content Area: Mathematics

cool-down exercises

Five to ten minutes of light to moderate physical activity that help the body recover from exercise.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

cooperation

Joint operation or action; working together to achieve a goal.

Content Area: Social Studies

cooperation

The act of two or more individuals working together for a common purpose or benefit.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

coordinate grid

A plane with a point selected as an origin, some length selected as a unit of distance, and two perpendicular lines that intersect at the origin, with positive and negative direction selected on each line.

Content Area: Mathematics

coordinate system

A method of locating points in the plane or in space by means of numbers. A point in a plane can be located by its distances from both a horizontal and a vertical line called the axes. The horizontal line is called the x-axis. The vertical line is called the y-axis. The pairs of numbers are called ordered pairs. The first number, called the x-coordinate, designates the distance along the horizontal axis. The second number, called the y-coordinate, designates the distance along the vertical axis. The point at which the two axes intersect has the coordinates (0,0) and is called the origin.

Content Area: Mathematics

coordination

The ability to use the senses with body parts or to use two or more body parts together harmoniously.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

coordination

The ability to use the senses with body parts or to use two or more body parts together harmoniously.

Content Area: Dance

core

Muscular and skeletal structures in the center of the body, including the abdomen, spine, and pelvis.

Content Area: Dance

core strength

The balanced development of the deep and superficial muscles that stabilize, align, and move the trunk of the body, especially the abdominals and muscles of the back.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

correlation

A measurable and predictable relationship.

Content Area: Science

correlation

A numerical value between -1 and 1, inclusive, that measures the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two variables.

Content Area: Mathematics

corresponding angles

Two angles in the same relative position on two lines when those lines are cut by a transversal.

Content Area: Mathematics

costumes

The clothing an actor wears to create a character.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

counter balance

The process by which balance is maintained through the equalizing of weight placement in the opposite direction.

Content Area: Dance

counting on

A strategy for finding the number of objects in a group without having to count every member of the group: if a stack of books is known to have 8 books and 3 more books are added to the top, it is not necessary to count the entire stack again, you may point to the top book and saying “eight,” then “nine, ten, eleven".

Content Area: Mathematics

CPR

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; a combination of rescue breathing and chest compressions delivered to victims thought to be in cardiac arrest to support a small amount of blood flow to the heart and brain to "buy time" until normal heart function is restored.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

craft

Skill; technique; doing a job with careful attention to detail and discipline.

Content Area: Visual Arts

creating

Generation of original art: the expression of unique ideas, feelings, and responses as visual images, characterization, written or improvised dramatic works, music, or dance.

Content Area: Visual Arts

creative process

The logical progression in the making of dance. Steps of the process: choose topic, research the topic, identify important aspects of the topic, devise problems to be solved, ask questions, solve problems and produce material, design artwork, self-evaluate, revise, get and use feedback from performance.

Content Area: Dance

creative process

Those reflective thoughts and actions that move from generation to completion of an idea to solve a creative problem such as brainstorming, selecting, researching, organizing, testing, revising, and finalizing.

Content Area: Visual Arts

creativity

Experience of thinking, reacting, and working in an imaginative and idiosyncratic way that is characterized by a high degree of innovation and originality, divergent thinking, and risk taking.

Content Area: Visual Arts

credibility

Believability, plausibility, worthy of confidence.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

credit

An extension of money or promise by one party to pay another for money borrowed or for goods.

Content Area: Mathematics

credit

An extension of money or promise by one party to pay another for money borrowed or for goods.

Content Area: Social Studies

credit history

The past records of how a person pays his/her credit and who has extended him/her credit.

Content Area: Social Studies

crescendo

Increasing intensity or volume.

Content Area: Music

criteria

The established conditions that must be met within any assignment: standards, lists, rules.

Content Area: Visual Arts

critical analysis

A higher level thinking strategy: Feldman’s model for description, analysis, interpretation, and judgment.

Content Area: Visual Arts

critical reading

Reading carefully to thoroughly comprehend and evaluate what is read by employing thinking strategies: identifying and interpreting propaganda techniques, differentiating facts from opinions, using problem-solving techniques, determining the reliability of the author See also: thinking strategies.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

criticism

A process used to describe, analyze, interpret, and judge.

Content Area: Visual Arts

critique

Opinions and comments based on predetermined criteria that may be used for self-evaluation or the evaluation of artwork.

Content Area: Visual Arts

critique

A written review analyzing all aspects of dance performance.

Content Area: Dance

critique

Opinions and comments based on predetermined criteria that may be used for self-evaluation or the evaluation of artwork.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

cross-curricular

Relating to an intersection of shared concepts between more than one academic course of study.

Content Area: Visual Arts

cross-cutting relationships

Relationships which may occur between two adjacent rock bodies, where the relative age may be determined by observing which rock “cuts” the other: a granitic dike cutting across a sedimentary unit.

Content Area: Science

cues

1 Signal for a performer or technician to perform an action or say a line. 2 Signal from a side-coach to perform an action or say a line.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

cultural diffusion

The movement and spread of customs and ideas from one culture to another.

Content Area: Social Studies

cultural diversity

Variety of human social structures, race, ethnicity, language, nationality, belief systems, etc. among various groups within a community.

Content Area: Social Studies

cultural interaction

The process by which the artifacts, technology, customs, and ideas of one culture interact with others.

Content Area: Social Studies

cultural perspectives

The view of the world (attitudes, mind sets, values) of a particular group of people.

Content Area: World Languages

cultural practices

The behavior patterns of a particular group of people.

Content Area: World Languages

cultural products

Tangible and intangible items created by members of a particular group.

Content Area: World Languages

cultural sensitivity

Knowing and respecting that differences exist between cultures, but not assigning values to the differences.

Content Area: Visual Arts

culture

The shared ideas, beliefs, customs, traditions, ceremonies, and experiences of a given people at a given time and place.

Content Area: Visual Arts

culture

The shared ideas, beliefs, customs, traditions, ceremonies, and experiences of a given people at a given time and place.

Content Area: Dance

culture

Set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization or group.

Content Area: Social Studies

culture

A particular group of people's view of the world (attitudes, mind sets, values held), the behavior patterns derived from that world view, and the cultural products they create.

Content Area: World Languages

culture

A style of social and artistic expression unique to a particular community of people.

Content Area: Music

currency

Coins and paper money.

Content Area: Social Studies

cylinder

A three-dimensional figure with congruent parallel circular bases.

Content Area: Mathematics

Return to Top