Standards Glossary

The purpose of this glossary is to help the user better understand the terminology used in the Colorado Academic Standards. It is intended to assist educational practitioners and pre-service educators in understanding the standards. It is not intended as a study guide for students nor does it represent a comprehensive list of all academic terms.

Content Area:

Use the alphabetical list to view glossary terms by first letter.

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E -

earnings

Earned income from employment, including commissions and tips.

Content Area: Social Studies

eating disorder

A category of behavioral disorders resulting from serious emotional problems expressed as extreme weight and food issues and are experienced by both men and women: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and compulsive overeating.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

economic interdependence

The dependence of people on other people to produce most of the goods and services required to sustain life and living.

Content Area: Social Studies

edge (of a shape)

The line segment formed when two faces of a three-dimensional figure intersect.

Content Area: Mathematics

editing

Improving the clarity, organization, concision, and correctness of expression relative to task, purpose, and audience for a writing or presentation; compared to revising, a smaller-scale activity often associated with surface aspects of a text. See also: revising, rewriting.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

editing

Improving the clarity, organization, concision, and correctness of expression relative to task, purpose, and audience for a writing or presentation; compared to revising, a smaller-scale activity often associated with surface aspects of a text. See also: revising, rewriting.

Content Area: World Languages

effective decision-making

Making decisions based on consideration of ethical standards, safety concerns, appropriate social norms, respect for others, and likely consequences of various actions; applying decision-making skills to academic and social situations; contributing to the well-being of oneís school and community. See also: responsible decision-making.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

electronic media

Means of communication characterized by the use of technology.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

elements of art

The basic ingredients that make up a work of art: line, shape, form, color, value, texture, space See also: visual art elements.

Content Area: Visual Arts

elements of dance

Dance moves in and through space; progresses through time, at various speeds or tempos; and requires the body to use energy in a wide range of movements from very light and minimal to very big and strong. See also: space, time, energy.

Content Area: Dance

elements of music

Pitch, rhythm, harmony, dynamics, timbre, texture, and form.

Content Area: Music

elements of theatre

Specific elements include plot, thought/theme, character, language/dialogue, setting, conflict, music/rhythm, spectacle.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

elevation

The ability to jump high into the air and give the appearance of remaining suspended at the apex of the jump.

Content Area: Dance

embargo

A deliberate cutoff of supply, typically intended as a political statement.

Content Area: Social Studies

emergent reader texts

Texts consisting of short sentences comprised of learned sight words and consonant-vowel-consonant words; may also include rebuses to represent words that cannot yet be decoded or recognized. See also: rebus.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

emotional abuse

Refers to behaviors and language that threaten a person or harm his or her sense of self-worth or emotional well-being: name calling, shaming, bullying, embarrassing on purpose, or keeping him/her away from friends and family.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

emotional health

The ability to identify, reflect on, regulate and express a range of emotions through productive and respectful means.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

energy

An element of dance referring to the quality of movement or how a movement is performed: smooth, sharp, free flow, bound flow, strong, light, sustained, percussive.

Content Area: Dance

English conventions of writing

Spelling, grammar, and punctuation; writers utilize conventions to convey information clearly to readers.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

ensemble

A group of actors working together cooperatively and responsibly to achieve the groupís goal through problem solving and creativity.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

entrepreneurs

A person who has possession of a new enterprise, venture or idea and assumes significant accountability for the inherent risks and the outcome.

Content Area: Social Studies

enunciation

Saying the vowels and consonants correctly.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

environment

1 Physical surroundings that establish place, time, and atmosphere/mood. 2 The physical conditions that reflect and effect the emotions, thoughts, and actions of characters.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

environment

Space or context in which a person lives, works, and plays and in which the visual world, including works of art, is experienced.

Content Area: Visual Arts

environmental issue

The result of an adverse change in the environment, often caused by human interactions.

Content Area: Science

environmental theatre

Is a performance which can only be done in a particular place or site, the affordances and constraints of the physical environment becomes a component of the performance.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

environmental toxins

Contaminants in the natural environment that can cause instability, disorder or harm to an ecosystem or any of its parts.

Content Area: Science

equal protection

All individuals have the same rights under the law; the state of having either comparable access to opportunity or results from condition education, employment, political participation, and similar areas.

Content Area: Social Studies

equality

A state of being essentially equal or equivalent; fairness; being alike.

Content Area: Social Studies

equilibrium price

The point at which quantity demanded and quantity supplied are equal.

Content Area: Social Studies

essay

Nonfiction prose focused on a single topic and developed through example and incident. Its purpose might be to inform, persuade, provoke, or entertain a reader.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

estimation

The process of finding a number close to an exact amount.

Content Area: Mathematics

ethics

Motivation based on ideas of right and wrong.

Content Area: Social Studies

etymological

Pertaining to the derivation of a word.

Content Area: World Languages

evaluation

Measures and documentation of student progress.

Content Area: Visual Arts

even-beat locomotor skills

Movement in an even, rhythmic pattern: walking, running, hopping, and jumping.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

event

Something that happens at a certain place and time.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

evidence

Facts, figures, details, quotations, or other sources of data and information that provide support for claims or an analysis and that can be evaluated by others; should appear in a form and be derived from a source widely accepted as appropriate to a particular discipline: details or quotations from a text in the study of literature and experimental results in the study of science.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

evidence

Data that is used to determine or demonstrate the accuracy of a conclusion.

Content Area: Science

evidence-based

Derived using the best available data for decision making.

Content Area: Science

evolutionary tree

A branching diagram showing the evolutionary relationships among various species.

Content Area: Science

evolving media

Relating to the ever-changing options that occur through the digital world that can be used to create art.

Content Area: Visual Arts

exchanges (written or oral)

Conversations that are spoken or written: e-mail, on-line discussion forums or chats, or text messages.

Content Area: World Languages

exemplars

Examples of works representative of a specific time period, group, artist, school, or style used to model the characteristics, materials, processes, or ideas of that time period, group, artist, school, or style. Can be works done by children to model what children of a comparable age would, could, or might make.

Content Area: Visual Arts

expanded form

A multi-digit number is expressed in expanded form when it is written as a sum of single-digit multiples of powers of ten: 643 = 600 + 40 + 3.

Content Area: Mathematics

experiment

A test under controlled conditions that is made to demonstrate a known truth, examine the validity of a hypothesis, or determine the efficacy of something previously untried.

Content Area: Science

explanation

Skill of communication in which an interpretation of information is given and stated to others.

Content Area: Science

exponent

A number used to tell how many times a number or variable is used as a factor: 53 indicates that 5 is a factor 3 times, that is, 5 x 5 x 5=125.

Content Area: Mathematics

exponential function

A function whose general equation is a y=abx or y=abkx, where a, b, and k represent constants.

Content Area: Mathematics

expository text

Nonfiction, factual prose written to explain: how to, cause and effect, classification, compare/contrast, or definition essays.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

expression

The way the character says words to convey meaning and emotion.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

expression

Performance with appropriate dynamics, phrasing, style, and interpretation and appropriate variations in dynamics and tempo.

Content Area: Music

expression

Showing an emotion or feeling in a work of art.

Content Area: Visual Arts

expressionism

A twentieth century style of painting expressing a definite or strong mood or feeling with simplified designs and brilliant colors.

Content Area: Visual Arts

expressive features

Components of works of art which affect the emotions, such as anger, sadness, and joy. See also: visual arts standards introduction for more information.

Content Area: Visual Arts

expressive practices

Habitual or customary actions or ways of doing something in a target culture.

Content Area: World Languages

expressive products

Works of music, literature, and visual art.

Content Area: World Languages

extension

Stretching any limb away from the midline.

Content Area: Dance

exterior angles

An angle that forms a linear pair with one of the interior angles of a polygon.

Content Area: Mathematics

extraterrestrial forces

Any force which originates beyond Earth.

Content Area: Science

extreme situations

Refers to extremes on any scale, such as speeds near the speed of light, temperatures near absolute zero, and sizes of molecules or smaller.

Content Area: Science

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