Standards Glossary

The purpose of this glossary is to help the user better understand the terminology used in the Colorado Academic Standards. It is intended to assist educational practitioners and pre-service educators in understanding the standards. It is not intended as a study guide for students nor does it represent a comprehensive list of all academic terms.

Content Area:

Use the alphabetical list to view glossary terms by first letter.

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I -

iconic movement notation

A method of writing notation through the use of icons.

Content Area: Dance

icons

A small pictogram.

Content Area: Visual Arts

identity property

Property of number that states that a number combined with an operation and the identity element for that operation leaves the number unchanged: for addition, N + 0 = N for any number N; for multiplication, N x 1 = N for any number N.

Content Area: Mathematics

idiom

Expressions or uses of words that are particular to a particular group of people.

Content Area: World Languages

idiomatic expressions

An expression which has a figurative meaning. Meaning of the expression is determined through usage, rather than literally. Idiomatic expressions are sometimes referred to as "figures of speech". They often cannot be translated literally into another language.

Content Area: World Languages

illustration

A picture specifically designed for the purpose of communicating commercial ideas: images for CD covers or books.

Content Area: Visual Arts

image

Physical likeness or representation of a person, place, event, or idea made visible through an art process.

Content Area: Visual Arts

imaginary number

A number that is the square root of a negative number. An imaginary number can be written in the form bi where b is a real number and i=v(-1).

Content Area: Mathematics

imagination

The act of recalling natural and human-made objects, animals, people, places, and events from one’s past experiences and rearranging them in a new or unusual order or format.

Content Area: Visual Arts

immigration

The movement from one country to another.

Content Area: Social Studies

Impressionism

A style of painting popular in the late 1800s and 1900s that featured everyday subjects showing the changing effects of color and light.

Content Area: Visual Arts

improvisation

Movement that is created spontaneously, and is both choreography and performance simultaneously.

Content Area: Dance

improvisation

With minimal preparation actors establish a story with objectives, setting, character, and relationships in a spontaneous performance.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

improvisation

The art of singing, or playing original music without preparation: extemporaneous performance.

Content Area: Music

improvisational blocking

Refusing/denying/ignoring/rejecting an offering.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

improvisational theatre

A structured, yet non-scripted scene or play.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

incentive

Something that stirs one to action.

Content Area: Social Studies

income

Payments (wages, rents, interest, profits) received for the provision of resources.

Content Area: Social Studies

independent(ly)

A student performance done without scaffolding from a teacher, other adult, or peer: when paired with proficient(ly) it suggests a successful student performance done without scaffolding; the act of reading a text without scaffolding See also: proficient(ly), scaffolding.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

indicators of increased capacity

Physiological response to changes in the intensity, duration, and frequency of physical activity: muscle fatigue, breathing, and heart rate.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

indirect evidence

Data that is related to but is not directly observable about a phenomena, object or process.

Content Area: Science

indirect measurement

A measurement which is found by using a formula or other strategy and not physically measuring something: finding the height of a tree without actually holding a ruler next to it.

Content Area: Mathematics

individual activity

Physical activities that require only one participant: weight training, golf, cycling, skiing, yoga, archery, and jogging.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

individual right

Rights possessed by an individual rather than those rights claimed by groups.

Content Area: Social Studies

infer

Draw a conclusion based on given facts: predict, generalize.

Content Area: Visual Arts

inference

Using results from a random sample to draw conclusions about a population or using results from a randomized experiment to compare treatments.

Content Area: Mathematics

inference

The process of drawing a conclusion through observation or hypotheses.

Content Area: Social Studies

inflection

The use of high and low sounds in speech to convey meaning and emotion. See also: pitch.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

informational text

Explanatory writing that serves one or more closely related purposes: to increase readers’ knowledge of a subject, to help readers better understand a procedure or process, or to provide readers with an enhanced comprehension of a concept. Informational/explanatory writing conveys information accurately.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

inquiry

Inquire; wonder. Have a wish or desire to know something.

Content Area: Visual Arts

inquiry approach

Focused on using and learning content as a means to develop information-processing and problem-solving skills. There is more emphasis on "how we come to know" and less on "what we know."

Content Area: Science

instrument

In the broadest sense, a device used to produce music. More specifically used in the standards to indicate the typical band instruments, orchestral instruments and keyboard instruments traditionally found in instrumental music classrooms.

Content Area: Music

insurance

Intended to provide financial protection in case of lose or damage to something owned or if liability or damages are involved; form of protection.

Content Area: Social Studies

intangible products

Cultural creations that are not physical: music, literary characters, and the language itself.

Content Area: World Languages

integer

A number expressible in the form a or –a for some whole number a.

Content Area: Mathematics

integrity

Perceived consistency of actions, values, methods, measures, principles, expectations, and outcomes.

Content Area: Visual Arts

intellectual confidence

Having a consciousness of one's need to face and fairly address ideas, beliefs, or viewpoints toward which one may have strong negative emotions and to which one may not have given a serious hearing.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

intellectual humility

Having a consciousness of the limits of one's knowledge, including a sensitivity to circumstances in which one's native egocentrism is likely to function self-deceptively; sensitivity to bias, prejudice and limitations of one's viewpoint.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

intensity

A guideline of physical fitness training that establishes how hard to exercise to improve or maintain fitness.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

intent

1 A dramatic representation of purpose. 2 An anticipated outcome that is intended by the writer, director and/or actors when performing a dramatic or theatrical work.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

intent

Purpose. An anticipated outcome that is intended or that acts as a guide for planned actions.

Content Area: Visual Arts

intercultural skills

The ability to successfully communicate with people from other cultures: capture and understand information, interact with people from another culture, reflect their specific concepts in perception, thinking, feeling and acting.

Content Area: World Languages

interdependence

The dynamic relationships between all living things and the systems in which those entities exist.

Content Area: Social Studies

interior angles

One of the angles inside a polygon or one of the internal angles formed when two or more lines are intersected by a transversal.

Content Area: Mathematics

interlude

An intermediate strain or movement played between the verses of a hymn or of a song.

Content Area: Music

intermediate color

A color mixed from a primary and the secondary color next to it. Is also called a “tertiary” color: red-orange, yellow-orange, yellow-green, blue-green, blue-violet, and red-violet.

Content Area: Visual Arts

International Phonetic Alphabet

A system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet, devised by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language also referred to as IPA.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

international trade

International trade is exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.

Content Area: Social Studies

interpersonal communication skills

1 The use of verbal and nonverbal skills to develop and maintain healthy personal relationships. 2 The ability to organize and convey information and feelings to strengthen interpersonal interactions and reduce or avoid conflict.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

interpersonal mode

Mode of communication in which students engage in direct oral and/or written communication with others: conversing face-to-face, participating in online discussions or videoconferences, instant messaging and text messaging, exchanging personal letters or e-mail messages.

Content Area: World Languages

interpret

A reading process that builds from inference; reading that relies on prediction, drawing conclusions, and making connections among ideas, events, characters, or other texts.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

interpretation

Serving to interpret a theatrical work in a variety of ways.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

interpretation

To find meaning and understanding in a particular way. In art criticism, determining and explaining the meaning, mood, or idea of artwork. In art history, noting how the sense of time and place affect an artist’s style and subject matter.

Content Area: Visual Arts

interpretive mode

Mode of communication in which students demonstrate understanding of spoken and written communication within the appropriate cultural context. Interpretation beyond the Novice level differs from comprehension because it implies the ability to read or listen "between the lines" and "beyond the lines." Examples of interpretive modes: cultural interpretations of print, video, and online texts; movies, radio and television broadcasts; and speeches.

Content Area: World Languages

interquartile range

A measure of variation in a set of numerical data, the interquartile range is the distance between the first and third quartiles of the data set: for the data set {1, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 15, 22, 120}, the interquartile range is 15 – 6 = 9 See also: first quartile, third quartile.

Content Area: Mathematics

intonation

Pattern or melody of pitch changes in connected speech, especially the pitch pattern of a sentence, which distinguishes kinds of sentences or speakers of different language cultures.

Content Area: World Languages

intonation

Rise and fall of the voice pitch.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

intonation

The alignment of frequencies of identical or different pitches.

Content Area: Music

intrinsic

Operating from and acting upon internal instincts of a person.

Content Area: Visual Arts

invariant

A property which remains unchanged under certain transformations: area is invariant when reflecting a figure.

Content Area: Mathematics

inverse function

The function that reverses the independent and dependent variables of a function.

Content Area: Mathematics

investigation

A detailed inquiry or systematic examination.

Content Area: Science

investing

Spending for the production and accumulation of capital resources.

Content Area: Social Studies

investment

The commitment of money or capital to purchase financial instruments or other assets in order to gain profitable returns in form of interest, income, or appreciation of the value of the instrument. It is related to saving or deferring consumption.

Content Area: Social Studies

irrational number

A number that cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers: v2, 3v 29, e , and TT.

Content Area: Mathematics

irregular shape

Shapes without equal side lengths or angles.

Content Area: Mathematics

irregular word

A word that cannot be decoded because either the sounds of the letters are unique to that word or a few words, or the student has not yet learned the letter-sound correspondences in the word.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

isolated words

Simple one-word utterances produced especially by novice-range learners.

Content Area: World Languages

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