Standards Glossary

The purpose of this glossary is to help the user better understand the terminology used in the Colorado Academic Standards. It is intended to assist educational practitioners and pre-service educators in understanding the standards. It is not intended as a study guide for students nor does it represent a comprehensive list of all academic terms.

Content Area:

Use the alphabetical list to view glossary terms by first letter.

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M -

major scale

One of the diatonic scales. It is made up of seven distinct notes, plus an eighth which duplicates the first an octave higher.       

Content Area: Music

make-up

Cosmetics applied to the face and body to enhance character.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

manipulative movements

Movements in which skills are developed while using an implement: throwing, catching, punching, kicking, trapping, rolling, dribbling, striking, and volleying.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

map

A representation of Earth's surface.

Content Area: Social Studies

map key

Explanatory table of symbols used on a map or chart.

Content Area: Social Studies

market economy

An economic system where most goods and services are exchanged through transactions between households and businesses.

Content Area: Social Studies

market system

Where money is used for exchange in place of goods and services.

Content Area: Social Studies

mass media

Mass media refers to those media that are designed to be consumed by large audiences through the agencies of technology.

Content Area: Visual Arts

material culture

A term that refers to the physical objects created by a culture. This could include the buildings, tools, and other artifacts created by the members of a society.

Content Area: Visual Arts

materials

Resources used in the creation and study of visual art: paint, clay, paper, canvas, film, videotape, watercolors, wood, and plastic.

Content Area: Visual Arts

maximum

The greatest value of a function or set of data.

Content Area: Mathematics

mean

A measure of center in a set of numerical data, computed by adding the values in a list and then dividing by the number of values in the list; also known as the arithmetic mean. On a plot, the mean is a point on the number line where the data on either side of the point are balanced: for the data set {1, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 15, 22, 120}, the mean is 21.

Content Area: Mathematics

mean absolute deviation

A measure of variation in a set of numerical data, computed by adding the distances between each data value and the mean, then dividing by the number of data values: for the data set {2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 15, 22, 120}, the mean absolute deviation is 20.

Content Area: Mathematics

measure of center

A single number used to summarize a one-variable data set. The mean, median, and mode are measures of center.

Content Area: Mathematics

measures of variability

A single-number summary that measures the variability of a distribution. Range, interquartile range, standard deviation, and variance are measures of variability.

Content Area: Mathematics

media

Plural of medium, referring to materials used to make art; categories of art: painting, sculpture, film.

Content Area: Visual Arts

median

A measure of center in a set of numerical data. The median of a list of values is the value appearing at the center of a sorted version of the list—or the mean of the two central values, if the list contains an even number of values: for the data set {2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 15, 22, 90}, the median is 11.

Content Area: Mathematics

medium

Referring to a specific material used to make art. Categories of art: painting, sculpture, film.

Content Area: Visual Arts

melody

A succession of pitches.

Content Area: Music

mental health

A state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

mental strategies

Performing computations in one's head without writing anything down. Mental math strategies can include finding pairs that add up to 10 or 100, doubling, and halving.

Content Area: Mathematics

metacognition

Awareness and understanding one's thinking and cognitive processes: thinking about thinking.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

metaphor(s)

A figure of speech in which a word, phrase or visual ordinarily used for one thing is applied to another.

Content Area: Visual Arts

meter

The division of beats into groups of beats.

Content Area: Music

meter signature

Numbers placed at the beginning of a musical composition which indicate the division of rhythmic pulses.

Content Area: Music

mezzo-forte

Moderately loud, between forte (loud) and piano ( soft) and a little louder than mezzo piano.

Content Area: Music

mezzo-piano

Moderately soft, between forte (Italian: loud) and piano (Italian: soft) with mezzo piano being a little quieter than mezzo forte.

Content Area: Music

midline

In the graph of a trigonometric function, the horizontal line halfway between its maximum and minimum values.

Content Area: Mathematics

migration

The movement from one location to another.

Content Area: Social Studies

mime

Act out movement or use of object without words or props in silence.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

minimum

The least value of a set or function.

Content Area: Mathematics

minor scale

One of the diatonic scales with a third scale degree at an interval of a minor third above the tonic.

Content Area: Music

mirroring

A partner skill in which one person leads by performing movement and the other person imitates the leader’s movement simultaneously.

Content Area: Dance

mixed economic system

Economic system that contains elements of traditional, command, and market decision making.

Content Area: Social Studies

mixed number

Numbers that have both whole numbers and fractions: 4 5/8.

Content Area: Mathematics

mixing

Putting instrumental and vocal components together with balance and in an organized manner.

Content Area: Music

modalities

Specific methods or procedures to show understanding: written form, verbal form, visual form, physical form, singing, dancing, acting, drawing, painting, acting.

Content Area: Visual Arts

model

To represent or show mathematical ideas and relationships and real-world situations using objects, pictures, graphs, tables, functions, and other methods.

Content Area: Mathematics

modeling

A sculptural technique manipulating a soft material into a three dimensional form. Monochromatic.

Content Area: Visual Arts

moderate physical activity

On a scale relative to an individual's personal capacity usually a 5 or 6 on a scale of 0 to 10, meaning it requires sustained rhythmic movements and some exertion but a healthy person should be able to carry on a conversation comfortably during the activity: walking briskly, dancing, swimming, or bicycling on level terrain.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

moderato

Moderately; in moderate time.

Content Area: Music

modern dance

A form of dance as developed by Martha Graham, Haya Holm, Doris Humphyre, Charles Weidman and others. It expresses complex emotions and abstract ideas.

Content Area: Dance

modified game

Active games that involve the use of two or more of the skills, rules, or procedures used in playing the official sport to support differentiation and adaptation.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

monetary policy

The process a government, central bank, or monetary authority of a country uses to control (i) the supply of money, (ii) availability of money, and (iii) cost of money or rate of interest to attain a set of objectives oriented towards the growth and stability of the economy.

Content Area: Social Studies

money

Any medium of exchange that has a standard of value, and a store of value.

Content Area: Social Studies

monologue

A speech within a play delivered by a single actor alone on stage.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

monopolistic competition

A market structure characterized by many firms producing differentiated products in a market with easy entry and exit.

Content Area: Social Studies

monopoly

Control of the production and distribution of a product or service by one firm or a group of firms acting in concert; the absence of competition.

Content Area: Social Studies

mood

The feeling or emotion a piece of literature evokes in the reader: happiness, sadness.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

morphemes

The practice of identifying words by an analysis of the meaningful parts of those words.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

motif

A dominant theme, idea, or pattern in a work of art. Motifs are often repeated.

Content Area: Dance

motif

A repeated shape or design in a work of art. A design unit that may be repeated in a visual rhythm.

Content Area: Visual Arts

motivation

1 A character's reason for doing or saying things in a dramatic or theatrical work. 2 What the character wants.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

movement

A principle of design of visual arts. The use of art elements to draw a viewer’s eye through an artwork.

Content Area: Visual Arts

movement

Dance specific movement is described in a variety of ways. 1 Continuity movement refers to the continuous passing of the feet from one step to the next. 2 Quality movement refers to the identifying attributes created by the release, follow-through, and termination of energy, which are key to making movement become dance. 3 Mechanical movement skills refer to aspects of balance, alignment, weight shift, elevation, landing, fall and recovery, articulation of isolated body parts, and initiation of movement. See also: locomotor, non-locomotor, sequence, basic, improvisation.

Content Area: Dance

movement

Physical action used to establish meaning and emotion to create character including blocking, gestures, posture/stance, and whole-body movements.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

movement

Flows of human phenomena, such as goods, people, and ideas, and with or natural phenomena: winds, rivers, and ocean currents.

Content Area: Social Studies

movement

To move rhythmically, usually to music, using prescribed or improvised steps and gestures. Movement can be dance: folk, ballroom, ethnic or improvised or it can be a kinesthetic gesture indicating pitch, phrasing, form, dynamics, or other musical elements.

Content Area: Music

movement concepts

The ideas used to modify or enrich the range and effectiveness of the skills employed. They involve learning how, where, with what, and with whom the body moves: levels, force and relationships.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

movement patterns

An organized series of related movements.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

movement techniques

Ways to incorporate movement in a dramatic or theatrical work which includes body alignment, control of isolated body parts, and rhythms.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

multiple modalities

Several varying methods or procedures.

Content Area: Visual Arts

multiple perspectives

Different or various points of view on a topic, idea or event.

Content Area: Social Studies

multiplication and division within 100

Multiplication or division of two whole numbers with whole number answers, and with product or dividend in the range 0-100: 72 ÷ 8 = 9.

Content Area: Mathematics

multiplicative identity

The number 1; that is, N x 1 = N for any number N.

Content Area: Mathematics

mural

A painting, generally drawn or painted directly onto an interior or exterior wall: Michelangelo’s frescos at the Sistine Chapel are small ceiling murals, Diego Rivera’s mural at the Detroit Institute of Art.

Content Area: Visual Arts

muscle endurance

The ability to contract the muscles many times without tiring or the ability to hold one contraction for an extended period.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

muscle strength

The ability of a muscle to exert force; generally measured as the amount of force a muscle can produce in one repetition.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

musical diversity

Music literature drawn from a variety of historical periods, world cultures, musical styles and forms.

Content Area: Music

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