Standards Glossary

The purpose of this glossary is to help the user better understand the terminology used in the Colorado Academic Standards. It is intended to assist educational practitioners and pre-service educators in understanding the standards. It is not intended as a study guide for students nor does it represent a comprehensive list of all academic terms.

Content Area:

Use the alphabetical list to view glossary terms by first letter.

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P -

parallel

Lines that lie in the same plane and do not intersect. Also, planes lying in space that never intersect.

Content Area: Mathematics

parameters

A variable used as an arbitrary constant. One common use is to describe a family of functions or graphs: the equation y = 3x + b containing the parameter "b", represents the family of parallel lines in the plane with slope 3.

Content Area: Mathematics

paraphrase

The act or process of restating or rewording.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

partition

Partitioning involves dividing shapes or quantities, usually into equal parts.

Content Area: Mathematics

pattern

A principle of design. The repetition of art elements in an organized way. Pattern and rhythm are both created through repetition. See also: rhythm.

Content Area: Visual Arts

patterns

Regularities in situations such as those in nature, events, shapes, designs, and sets of numbers: spirals on pineapples, geometric designs in quilts, the number sequence 3,6,9,12,…

Content Area: Mathematics

peer pressure

When someone tries to have an influence on a similar aged person's actions or behaviors.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

percent rate of change

A rate of change expressed as a percent: if a population grows from 50 to 55 in a year, it grows by 5/50 = 10% per year.

Content Area: Mathematics

perception

Information obtained through the senses: observation; quick, acute, and intuitive cognition.

Content Area: Visual Arts

performance

A structured presentation of theatrical work in front of an audience.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

performance style

The distinctive characteristics or techniques of an individual artist, group, or period as seen in a work of theatre.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

perimeter

The distance around a geometric shape.

Content Area: Mathematics

perpendicular

Lines in the same plane which intersect to form a right angle. Also planes that intersect to form a right angle.

Content Area: Mathematics

personal efficacy

Beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute a course of action required to produce given attainments.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

personal space

Space that a dancer’s body occupies. Area immediately surrounding a dancer, including all levels and directions reachable by extending the limbs and torso.

Content Area: Dance

perspective

The appearance of things relative to one another.

Content Area: Social Studies

perspective

A way to create the appearance of depth and three dimensions on a two-dimensional surface: one-point linear perspective, two-point linear perspective, atmospheric perspective.

Content Area: Visual Arts

persuasive writing

The purpose is to convince the reader of an idea, to change the reader's mind, or to move the reader to action: letters to the editor, political pamphlets.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

phonemes

A member of the set of the smallest units of speech that serve to distinguish one utterance from another in a language or dialect.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

phonological

The distribution and patterning of speech sounds in a language and of the tacit rules governing pronunciation.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

photography

1 The process of forming and fixing an image of an object by the chemical action of light and other forms of radiant energy on photosensitive surfaces. 2 A photographic method that stores the image digitally for later reproduction. 3 The art and business of producing and printing photographs.

Content Area: Visual Arts

phrase

A segment of a composition, usually consisting of four or eight measures.

Content Area: Music

phrase

A brief sequence of related movements that has a sense of rhythmic completion.

Content Area: Dance

phrasing

The fitting of dance figures to the rhythm and/or melody of the music. Phrasing may be adjusted in certain dances by the use of lead-in steps to bring the dancers in on a different beat.

Content Area: Dance

phrasing

The punctuation of music; dividing the musical statements into rhythmical sections.

Content Area: Music

physical activity

Bodily movement that is produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle and that substantially increases energy expenditure: exercise, sport, recreation, and dance.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

physical features

See: natural features.

Content Area: Social Studies

physical fitness

A positive state of well-being with a low risk of premature health problems and with the energy to participate in a variety of physical activities. Influenced by regular, vigorous physical activity, genetic makeup, and nutritional adequacy.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

physical geography

Geography of Earth's surface; the branch of geography that studies the natural features of the Earth's surface as well as their formation.

Content Area: Social Studies

pianissimo

Extremely soft.

Content Area: Music

piano

Soft.

Content Area: Music

pitch

A musical concept that corresponds to but is not directly related to the scientific concept of frequency, or highness/lowness of sound. In music pitch includes not only the spectrum of sounds from low to high frequencies, but the relative designation of sounds to fit within a harmonic or melodic framework, such as a scale in western music.

Content Area: Music

pitch

The use of high and low sounds in speech to convey meaning and emotion. See also: inflection.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

place

Locations having distinctive characteristics which give them meaning and character and distinguish them from other locations.

Content Area: Social Studies

plan

1 A scheme or method of acting, doing, proceeding, or making developed in advance. 2 The stage of the writing process in which the writer makes decisions about the text being written: generating ideas, finding a focus, arranging ideas, developing an appropriate voice.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

play

A form of writing intended for live performance.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

play building

The process of creating, rehearsing, and presenting a story based on ideas, life experiences, and imagination.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

playwright

A person who writes plays.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

plot

The storyline that includes exposition, inciting incident, rising action, climax, and resolution of a conflict.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

point of view

The position or perspective conveyed or represented by an author, narrator, speaker, or character: the narrative point of view in literary texts might describe be as first- or third-person narration.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

point of view

The angle from which a viewer sees an object.

Content Area: Visual Arts

poise

1 Possessing self-confidence. 2 Ready, prepared.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

polygon

A closed plane figure formed by three or more line segments that meet only at vertices.

Content Area: Mathematics

positions

A reference to ballet position.

Content Area: Dance

positive space

The space filled by the dancer’s body.

Content Area: Dance

posture

The relationship of the body (skeleton) to the line of gravity and the base of support. See also: stance.

Content Area: Dance

power

The ability to use strength quickly.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

pregnancy

The state when a fertilized egg implants in the lining of the woman's uterus.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

prejudice

To hold an adverse opinion or belief without just ground or before acquiring sufficient knowledge.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

presentational mode

Mode of communication in which students present, through oral and/or written communications, information, concepts, and ideas to an audience of listeners or readers with whom there is no immediate interaction: making a presentation to a group, posting an online video or webpage, creating and posting a podcast or videocast, and writing an article for a newspaper.

Content Area: World Languages

presto

Tempo: quick, faster than allegro.

Content Area: Music

prevention

Actions and interventions designed to identify and avoid risks and reduce susceptibility or exposure to health threats prior to disease (primary prevention), to prevent progress or recurrence in early stages (secondary prevention), and to alleviate the effects of disease and injury (tertiary prevention).

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

pre-writing

The stage in the writing process in which the writer plans what she or he will write. This stage includes generating ideas, organizing thoughts and setting goals for writing.

Content Area: World Languages

primary source

Historical documents, such as reports, maps, photographs, letters, drawing, diaries, and court records and other legal documents, created by those who participated in or witnessed the events of the past.

Content Area: Social Studies

primary triad

A major triad built on the tonic (I), subdominant (IV), and dominant (V) degrees of a major scale.

Content Area: Music

prime number

A number with exactly two factors, one and itself: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29; not 1.

Content Area: Mathematics

principles of design

Means of organizing the elements in a work of art: balance, contrast, emphasis/dominance, harmony, movement, pattern, proportion, repetition, rhythm, unity, variety.

Content Area: Visual Arts

principles of design

Considerations that guide a choreographer in the creation of a dance: sequence, contrast, repetition and unity.

Content Area: Dance

principles of training

Criteria to follow in planning a fitness program to effect positive physiological changes in the human body related to health and performance: frequency, individuality, intensity, mode/type, overload, progression, regularity, reversibility, specificity, and time.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

print or digital (texts, sources)

Sometimes added for emphasis to stress that a given standard is particularly likely to be applied to electronic as well as traditional texts; the Standards are generally assumed to apply to both.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

prism

A three-dimensional figure with parallelogram faces and two parallel, congruent bases.

Content Area: Mathematics

probability

A number between 0 and 1 used to quantify likelihood for processes that have uncertain outcomes: tossing a coin, selecting a person at random from a group of people, tossing a ball at a target, or testing for a medical condition.

Content Area: Mathematics

probability model

A probability model is used to assign probabilities to outcomes of a chance process by examining the nature of the process. The set of all outcomes is called the sample space, and their probabilities sum to 1. See also: uniform probability model.

Content Area: Mathematics

problem solving

The process of finding a solution to a stated problem. Convergent problem solving tasks require the identification of one correct response. Divergent problem solving tasks require the formation of multiple solutions to a problem.

Content Area: Visual Arts

problem spotting

The act of identifying problems and providing constructive criticism about a scene or theatrical work.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

process

A sequential operation involving a number of methods or techniques: the carving process in sculpture, the etching process in printmaking, or the casting process in making jewelry.

Content Area: Visual Arts

producer

An individual or company that combines natural, human, and/or capital resources to make goods or provide services.

Content Area: Social Studies

production

A structured performance created and presented for an audience.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

productive resources

The inputs of labor, natural resources and capital used to generate new goods and services.

Content Area: Social Studies

productivity

A measure of output from a production process, per unit of input. For example, labor productivity is typically measured as a ratio of output per labor-hour, an input.

Content Area: Social Studies

proficiency

A professional term referencing measurable competency/fluency in a foreign language.

Content Area: World Languages

proficiency level

Refers to a level of measurable competence/fluency within a specified proficiency range: “Novice-Mid” within the “Novice Range”.

Content Area: World Languages

proficiency range

Refers to a broad category of proficiency; breadth of functional communication (listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing abilities) in the foreign language. It also considers cognitive abilities, the manner in which one expresses one’s thinking, and the knowledge of the cultures that use the foreign language: “Novice Range”, which has three sub-levels within that range.

Content Area: World Languages

proficient(ly)

A student performance that meets the criterion established in the Standards as measured by a teacher or assessment: when paired with independent(ly) it suggests a successful student performance done without scaffolding; the act of reading a text with comprehension See also: independent(ly), scaffolding.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

progression

The process of increasing the intensity, duration, frequency , or amount of activity or exercise as the body adapts to a given activity pattern.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

progressive tax

Any tax in which the rate increases as the amount subject to taxation increases.

Content Area: Social Studies

projection

The appropriate use of loud and soft sounds (volume) that convey meaning and emotion so that it is heard by the entire audience.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

promptbook

The copy of the play script used by a prompter or director.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

pronunciation

The correct way in which the word is spoken or articulated.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

propaganda

Concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions and behaviors of individuals and groups.

Content Area: Social Studies

properties

Mathematical principals that are always true.

Content Area: Mathematics

properties of equality

The properties of equality apply to the rational number system, the real number system, and the complex number system and include the reflexive, symmetric, transitive, substitution, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division properties of equality.

Content Area: Mathematics

properties of inequality

The properties of inequality apply to the rational and real number system for arbitrary real numbers a, b, c, exactly one of the following is true: a < b, a = b, a > b. If a > b and b > c then a > c. If a > b, then b < a. If a > b, then –a < –b. If a > b, then a ± c > b ± c. If a > b and c > 0, then a × c > b × c. If a > b and c < 0, then a × c < b × c. If a > b and c > 0, then a ÷ c > b ÷ c. If a > b and c < 0, then a ÷ c < b ÷ c.

Content Area: Mathematics

properties of operations

The properties of operations apply to the rational number system, the real number system, and the complex number system and include the associative property, commutative property, additive identity property, multiplicative identity property, and distributive property of multiplication over addition.

Content Area: Mathematics

proportion

A principle of design of visual arts. The relationship of parts to a whole or parts to one another, referring to size and placement.

Content Area: Visual Arts

proportion

An equation of the form a/b=c/d which states that the two ratios are equivalent.

Content Area: Mathematics

proportional reasoning

Reasoning which involves relative comparisons.

Content Area: Mathematics

proportional tax

Any tax in which the rate is constant as the amount subject to taxation increases.

Content Area: Social Studies

props

Objects used by an actor on stage. Also refers to stage properties.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

pro-social behavior

Actions that benefit other people or society as a whole: cooperation, conflict resolution, and helping.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

prosody

The tone and rhythmic aspects of spoken language. Prosody comprises a series of features including pitch (intonation), stress patterns (syllable prominence), and duration (length of time) that convey information above and beyond that provided by the actual words themselves.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

public policy

Body of laws, rules, guidelines and court decisions by which an open society organizes and conducts its affairs.

Content Area: Social Studies

puppetry

Almost anything brought to life by human hands to create a performance.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

pyramid

Three-dimensional figure with triangles as faces and a polygon base. The triangle faces meet at a point.

Content Area: Mathematics

Pythagorean theorem

The sum of the squares of the lengths of the two legs (a, b) of a right triangle is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse (c). The formula is a2 + b2 = c2.

Content Area: Mathematics

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