Standards Glossary

The purpose of this glossary is to help the user better understand the terminology used in the Colorado Academic Standards. It is intended to assist educational practitioners and pre-service educators in understanding the standards. It is not intended as a study guide for students nor does it represent a comprehensive list of all academic terms.

Content Area:

Use the alphabetical list to view glossary terms by first letter.

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R -

racism

Discrimination and negative prejudgments with the purpose of maintaining control or power over others on the basis of race.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

random sample

A sample in which individuals are selected by some chance process; sometimes used synonymously with simple random sample.

Content Area: Mathematics

random variable

An assignment of a numerical value to each outcome in a sample space.

Content Area: Mathematics

range (of data)

The difference between the greatest and least numbers in a set of data. A range is a single value, not a description of the smallest to the greatest values: the range of a data set with 5 as its minimum and 9 as its maximum is 4, not "5-9".

Content Area: Mathematics

range of a function

The set of output values for the domain (input) values.

Content Area: Mathematics

rape

Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

rate

How quickly and accurately a reader reads connected text. Rate is commonly measured as the number of words read correctly per minute (WCPM).

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

rate

A ratio that compares different types of units.

Content Area: Mathematics

ratio

A comparison of two quantities or rate of change.

Content Area: Mathematics

rational expression

A quotient of two polynomials with a non-zero denominator.

Content Area: Mathematics

rational function

A function that can be written as R(x) = P(x) / Q(x) where P(x) and Q(x) are polynomials and Q(x) ? 0.

Content Area: Mathematics

rational number

Numbers that can be expressed in the form a/b, where a and b are integers and b ? 0; terminating decimals, repeating decimals, and mixed numbers all represent rational numbers and every integer is a rational number: 3/4, 2/1, 11/3, 5, .75.

Content Area: Mathematics

reaction time

The amount of time it takes for a person to react to a presented stimuli.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

readerís theatre

An orchestrated reading presentation relying primarily on vocal characterization, without the use of visual theatre elements such as costuming, sets, or blocking.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

real numbers

All rational and irrational numbers.

Content Area: Mathematics

realism

A style of art that portrays objects or scenes as they might appear in everyday life.

Content Area: Visual Arts

realistic

A recognizable subject is portrayed using lifelike colors, textures, and proportion.

Content Area: Visual Arts

reasoning

The process of forming conclusions, judgments, or inferences from facts or premises.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

recombining

Refers to reproducing learned work with minor adaptations.

Content Area: World Languages

rectilinear figure

A polygon all angles of which are right angles.

Content Area: Mathematics

reflection

A transformation which produces the mirror image of a geometric figure; also known as a flip.

Content Area: Mathematics

reflective symmetry

If a figure is divided by a line and both divisions are mirrors of each other, the figure has reflective symmetry. The line that divides the figure is the line of symmetry.

Content Area: Mathematics

refrain

A part of a song that recurs at the end of each of a number of verses.

Content Area: Music

region

An area defined from its surroundings by common characteristics of physical landscape, economy, or function.

Content Area: Social Studies

regressive tax

A regressive tax is a tax imposed in such a manner that the tax rate decreases as the amount subject to taxation increases.

Content Area: Social Studies

regular polygon

A polygon with equal side lengths and equal interior angle measures.

Content Area: Mathematics

rehearsal

The period of time used to prepare a play for performance for an audience.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

relative frequency

A ratio of the number of times a particular outcome occurs to the total number of trials.

Content Area: Mathematics

reliable

The degree to which health-promoting information, products, resources, or services can be trusted according to research base and freedom from bias.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

renewable resource

A resource that can be regenerated or replaced if used carefully: fish or timber.

Content Area: Social Studies

repeating decimal

The decimal form of a rational number. See also: terminating decimal.

Content Area: Mathematics

repertoire

A body of existing artistic work.

Content Area: Dance

repertoire

A comprehensive list of compositions, songs, pieces, or parts of pieces that a person is prepared to perform or recite.

Content Area: Music

research project

An investigation intended to address query. A short research project addresses a narrowly tailored query in a brief period of time, as in a few class periods or a week of instructional time. A sustained research project addresses a relatively expansive query using several sources over an extended period of time, as in a few weeks of instructional time.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

research-based evidence

Data derived from sound scientific research methods. It is noted as research-based to differentiate from anecdotal or circumstantial evidence.

Content Area: Science

resolution

1 Something that is settled or resolved. 2 The outcome of decision making.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

resources

The assets (things of value) which an economy (or business) may have available to supply and produce goods and services to meet the ever-changing needs and wants of individuals (in the case of a business) and society: minerals, timber, or time.

Content Area: Social Studies

resources

An aspect of the physical environment that people value and use to meet a need for fuel, food, industrial product, or something else of value.

Content Area: Social Studies

respect

Esteem; the condition of being honored.

Content Area: Social Studies

respect

Showing consideration or appreciation for self, other, event, or thing.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

responsibilities

Duties, obligations, or social pressure that binds an individual to a course of action such as the responsibility to pay taxes and vote.

Content Area: Social Studies

responsibility

To act assertively, reliably, dependably, honestly and ethically on behalf of self and others.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

responsible decision-making

Making decisions based on consideration of ethical standards, safety concerns, appropriate social norms, respect for others, and likely consequences of various actions; applying decision-making skills to academic and social situations; contributing to the well-being of oneís school and community. See also: effective decision-making.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

revise

1 To change a piece of writing to improve its style, organization, or content. 2 To rework the big ideas and/or the overall structure in order to clarify ideas.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

revising

A reconsideration and reworking of the content of a text relative to task, purpose, and audience for a writing or presentation; compared to editing, a larger-scale activity often associated with the overall content and structure of a text. See also: editing, rewriting.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

revising

A reconsideration and reworking of the content of a text relative to task, purpose, and audience for a writing or presentation; compared to editing, a larger-scale activity often associated with the overall content and structure of a text. See also: editing, rewriting.

Content Area: World Languages

rewriting

Largely or wholly replacing a previous, unsatisfactory effort with a new effort on the same or a similar topic or theme, better aligned to task, purpose, and audience for a writing and or presentations; compared to revising, a larger-scale activity more akin to replacement than refinement. See also: editing, revising.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

rhetoric

Skill in using language effectively and persuasively.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

rhythm

Pace at which an actor speaks or a theatrical work employs.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

rhythm

The regular occurrence of accented beats that shape the character of music or dance.

Content Area: Dance

rhythm

Intentional, regular repetition of lines of shapes to achieve a specific repetitious effect or pattern. See also: pattern.

Content Area: Visual Arts

rhythmic accuracy

The ability to transfer the rhythm from an auditory stimuli into a kinesthetic movement while maintaining the tempo and energy of the rhythm.

Content Area: Dance

rhythmic skills

Skills that develop an understanding of and a feeling for the elements of rhythm. Activities that allow students to express themselves rhythmically: creative movement, jump roping, juggling, and dance.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

rights

Construed as legal, social, or moral freedoms to act or refrain from acting, or entitlements to be acted upon or not acted upon.

Content Area: Social Studies

rigid motion

A transformation of points in space consisting of a sequence of one or more translations, reflections, and/or rotations. Rigid motions preserve distances and angle measures.

Content Area: Mathematics

risk

Social, economic or biological status, behaviors or environments which are associated with or cause increased susceptibility to a specific disease, ill health, or injury.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

risk

A measure of the likelihood of loss or the uncertainty of an investment's rate of return.

Content Area: Social Studies

risk avoidance

Technique of risk management that involves taking steps to remove a hazard, engaging in an alternative activity, or ending a specific exposure.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

risk reduction

Actions that can successfully decrease the probability that individuals, groups, or communities will experience disease, debilitating health conditions, or environmental hazards.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

ritardando

Tempo: gradually slower, retarding, to hold back, holding back.

Content Area: Music

role

The characteristic and expected social behavior of an individual in a given position. Role portrayal is likely to be more predictable and one-dimensional than character portrayal.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

rondo

A choreographic form of three or more themes with an alternating return to the main theme: ABACADA.

Content Area: Dance

root words

The form of a word after all affixes are removed.

Content Area: World Languages

rotation

A transformation which turns a figure about a point a given number of degrees; also called a turn.

Content Area: Mathematics

round

A musical composition in which two or more voices sing exactly the same melody (and may continue repeating it indefinitely), but with each voice beginning at different times.

Content Area: Music

rounding

Finding an approximate number that has fewer non-zero digits to make further estimation easier.

Content Area: Mathematics

rubric

A systematic scoring guideline to evaluate behaviors, documents or performance through the use of detailed performance standards.

Content Area: Visual Arts

rule of law

Principle that every member of society, even a ruler, must follow the law.

Content Area: Social Studies

rules

A principle or condition that customarily governs behavior.

Content Area: Social Studies

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