Standards Glossary

The purpose of this glossary is to help the user better understand the terminology used in the Colorado Academic Standards. It is intended to assist educational practitioners and pre-service educators in understanding the standards. It is not intended as a study guide for students nor does it represent a comprehensive list of all academic terms.

Content Area:

Use the alphabetical list to view glossary terms by first letter.

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S -

salutations

Greetings, leave-takings.

Content Area: World Languages

sample

Part of a population selected to represent the entire population.

Content Area: Mathematics

sample space

In a probability model for a random process, a list of the individual outcomes that are to be considered.

Content Area: Mathematics

satirical

1 Of or pertaining to a dramatic form using techniques of comedy: wit, irony, and exaggeration. 2 To attack and expose folly and vice.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

saving

An act of economizing; reduction in cost; set aside resources for the future.

Content Area: Social Studies

scaffolding

Temporary guidance or assistance provided to a student by a teacher, another adult, or a more capable peer, enabling the student to perform a task he or she otherwise would not be able to do alone, with the goal of fostering the student’s capacity to perform the task on his or her own later on.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

scale

A group of notes (or pitch-classes) arranged sequentially, rising or falling.     

Content Area: Music

scale

A geographic tool used to measure distances.

Content Area: Social Studies

scarcity

Unlimited human needs and wants, in a world of limited resources.

Content Area: Social Studies

scatter plot

A graph in the coordinate plane representing a set of bivariate data: the heights and weights of a group of people could be displayed on a scatter plot.

Content Area: Mathematics

scene

A subdivision of a play with a single situation or unit of dialogue.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

scenery

The theatrical equipment used in a dramatic production to communicate environment: curtains, flats, backdrops, or platforms. Also refer to set.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

scientific notation

A short-hand way of writing very large or very small numbers. A number expressed in scientific notation is expressed as a decimal number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10: 4.53 X 103 = 4350.

Content Area: Mathematics

script

The written dialogue, description, and directions provided by the playwright.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

sculpture

A three-dimensional work of art either in the round (to be viewed from all sides) or in bas relief (low relief in which figures protrude slightly from the background).

Content Area: Visual Arts

secondary sources

Written accounts of events of the past that reflect the author's interpretation of these events based on the author's analysis of primary and/or secondary sources of information.

Content Area: Social Studies

secondary triad

A minor triad built on other degrees of a major scale.

Content Area: Music

self-awareness

Accurately assessing one’s feelings, interests, values, and strengths; maintaining a well-grounded sense of self-confidence.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

self-control

The ability to regulate and manage one's emotions, behavior, and desires in order to obtain some reward later.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

self-expression

Communicating one's own personality, feelings, or ideas, often through art.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

self-management

Regulating one’s emotions and behaviors to handle stress, control impulses, and persevere in overcoming obstacles; setting and monitoring progress toward personal and academic goals; and expressing emotions and opinions appropriately.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

sensory

Involving or derived from the senses: taste, touch, smell, hear, see.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

sensory features/qualities

Components of works of art that affect the five physical senses.

Content Area: Visual Arts

sentence structure

The grammatical arrangement of words in sentences.

Content Area: World Languages

sequence

The plan of the movement series in a dance to provide that each movement be a logical outgrowth of that which precedes it, thereby giving continuity, meaning, and order to the dance as a whole.

Content Area: Dance

services

That which is produced, then traded, bought or sold, then finally consumed and consists of an actions or work that people do for others, sometimes for money, sometimes for free.

Content Area: Social Studies

set

The on-stage space and its structures, also known as scenery, in which the actors perform.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

setting

The “where” of a dance, including time and place.

Content Area: Dance

setting

The time, place, and atmosphere in which the scene or play occurs.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

settlements

The spatial distribution and arrangement of human habitations, including rural and urban centers.

Content Area: Social Studies

sexism

Discrimination and negative prejudgments with the purpose of maintaining control or power over others on the basis of sex.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

sexual assault

Any sexual act that is perpetrated against someone's will and encompasses a range of offenses: a completed nonconsensual sex act, an attempted nonconsensual sex act, abusive sexual contact or unwanted touching, and non-contact sexual abuse, threatened sexual violence, exhibitionism, or verbal sexual harassment. See also: sexual violence.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

sexual health

A state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction, or infirmity. Requires a positive, respectful, and safe approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, free of coercion, discrimination, and violence.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

sexual violence

Any sexual act that is perpetrated against someone's will and encompasses a range of offenses: a completed nonconsensual sex act, an attempted nonconsensual sex act, abusive sexual contact or unwanted touching, and non-contact sexual abuse, threatened sexual violence, exhibitionism, or verbal sexual harassment. See also: sexual assault.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

sexually transmitted disease (STD)

Diseases, which have visible signs and symptoms, caused by sexually transmitted infections.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

sexually transmitted infection (STI)

Any infection (bacterial, viral, or parasitic) that is acquired through sexual contact. May or may not cause symptoms.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

shade

A value created by adding black to a color.

Content Area: Visual Arts

shape

In ballroom dancing, the combination of turn and sway to create a look or position.

Content Area: Dance

shape

1 An element of art. 2 A two-dimensional (flat) area enclosed by line.

Content Area: Visual Arts

shape of the data

A description of how data are distributed relative to the position of a measure of center.

Content Area: Mathematics

similar figures

Figures which have equivalent corresponding angles and proportional side lengths.

Content Area: Mathematics

similarity transformation

A rigid motion followed by a dilation.

Content Area: Mathematics

simple interest

Interest which is paid only on the principal.

Content Area: Mathematics

skepticism

A doctrine that suspends judgment until there is sufficient scientific evidence to believe a claim.

Content Area: Science

sketch

A drawing without much detail, usually completed in a short amount of time; sometimes used as a rough draft for later work.

Content Area: Visual Arts

skew

Asymmetry in the distribution of sample data values; values on one side of the distribution tend to be further from the 'middle' than values on the other side.

Content Area: Mathematics

skill-related fitness components

Agility, balance, coordination, power, reaction time, and speed.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

slang

Language peculiar to a particular group; usually used in casual and playful speech.

Content Area: World Languages

slur

A curved line drawn over or under two or more notes, signifying that they are to be executed smoothly and without articulation.

Content Area: Music

social courtesies

Polite behavior, gestures, expressions.

Content Area: World Languages

social interaction

The acts, actions, or practices of two or more people mutually oriented towards each other; any behavior that tries to affect or take into account each other's subjective experiences or intentions.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

solfege

A system of singing standardized syllables on certain notes of the scale: doh, re, mi, fah, sol, la, ti, doh.

Content Area: Music

solo

A dance performed by one person.

Content Area: Dance

sound

The process of using music, audio effects and reinforcement to enhance setting and mood.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

source

A text used largely for informational purposes, as in research.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

space

An element of visual arts. The area above, below, around, and within a piece of artwork. The illusion of depth or space on a flat surface, created through the use of various techniques: overlapping shapes and forms, use of size, detail, value, color, and linear perspective.

Content Area: Visual Arts

space

The area in and through which dance moves.

Content Area: Dance

spatial reasoning

A type of reasoning in which a person can draw upon one's understanding of relationships in space, the three-dimensional world: spatial reasoning is demonstrated by one's ability to build a three-dimensional model of a building shown in a picture; a person who uses spatial visualization is said to have spatial sense.

Content Area: Mathematics

spatial understanding

Pertains to space on Earth's surface; refers to distances, directions, areas and other aspects of space.

Content Area: Social Studies

specialization

Specialization is the separation of tasks within a system.

Content Area: Social Studies

specificity

A principle of training which indicates that physiologic changes in response to physical activity are highly dependent on the type of physical activity.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

spectacle

Includes all visual elements of a production: scenery, properties, lighting, costumes, makeup, physical movement, and dance.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

sphere

Three-dimensional figure consisting of all points equidistant from a given point, the center of the sphere.

Content Area: Mathematics

spontaneous

Happening or arising without apparent external cause.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

sportsmanship

Characterized by playing fair, following the rules of the game, respecting the judgment of referees and officials, and treating opponents with respect.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

square number

A number whose square root is an integer.

Content Area: Mathematics

square root

A number which when multiplied by itself produces the given number: 5 is the square root of 25, because 5 x 5 = 25.

Content Area: Mathematics

staccato

Detached; distinct; separated from each other.

Content Area: Music

stage

The place where the actors perform.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

stage directions

Upstage, downstage, stage right, and stage left.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

stage properties

Anything that is not part of the set, nor worn by the actor. They are often called props.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

stage spaces

Sections of the stage or stage environments: proscenium, thrust, arena, or theatre-in-the-round.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

stance

The relationship of the body (skeleton) to the line of gravity and the base of support. See also: posture.

Content Area: Dance

standard algorithms

Commonly used algorithms; multi-step procedure that will produce an answer for a given class of problem: traditional algorithms, partial products/sums, lattice.

Content Area: Mathematics

standard deviation

A measure of spread. The standard deviation of a population is equal to the square root of the sum of the squared deviations divided by n. The standard deviation of a sample is equal to the square root of the sum of the squared deviations divided by n-1.

Content Area: Mathematics

standard English

1 The most widely accepted and understood form of expression in English in the United States. 2 Refers to formal English writing and speaking.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

standard units of measure

Commonly used units within the customary and metric measurement systems.

Content Area: Mathematics

status

Importance or lack thereof of a character or object on the stage.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

step function

A function whose graph consists of a series of horizontal line segments.

Content Area: Mathematics

stimuli

Varying catalysts for movement. Motivational catalysts encourage movement based on goals and ideas. Sensory catalysts encourage movement based on the senses.

Content Area: Dance

story

A visual or verbal narrative related to real experiences, imagined experiences, or a combination of both. A story can be presented sequentially or as an isolated moment in time.

Content Area: Visual Arts

strategy

A plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

stress

The body's physiological response to rise to a challenge and prepare to meet a tough situation with focus, strength, stamina, and heightened alertness. Can cause problems when the body overreacts, fails to turn off and reset itself properly, or is activated for long periods of time.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

stroke

A fundamental motor skill in which an object is hit, with or without an implement.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education

structural patterns

Refers to rules and forms of word formation, grammar and syntax.

Content Area: World Languages

structure

The composition of a theatrical work including play, scene, or improvisation that includes exposition, inciting incident, rising action, conflict, climax, falling action, and resolution.

Content Area: Drama and Theatre Arts

style

1 The way in which something is expressed. 2 The individuality of expression conveyed through the author's selection and arrangement of words, phrases, and images.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

style

The distinctive use of art elements and principles, forming characteristics or techniques unique to an individual artist, genre, movement, group or period.

Content Area: Visual Arts

style

The distinctive or characteristic manner in which elements of music are treated. In practice, the term may be applied to: composers (in the style of Copland, in the style of Bach), periods (Baroque style, Romantic style), media (keyboard style, vocal style), nations (French style, Russian style), form or type of composition (fugal style, contrapuntal style), or genre (operatic style, bluegrass style).

Content Area: Music

style

A distinctive manner of moving, the characteristic way dance is done, created, or performed that identifies the dance of particular performer, choreographer, historical period or culture.

Content Area: Dance

subject

That which is represented in a work of art. In a portrait, the subject is the person depicted. In a landscape, the subject is the actual scene. In abstract art, the subject may only exist in the artist’s mind.

Content Area: Visual Arts

subsidies

A form of financial assistance paid to a business or economic sector.

Content Area: Social Studies

summarize

A brief statement that contains the essential ideas of a longer passage or selection.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

summary statistics

A single number representation of the characteristics of a set of data. Usually given by measures of central tendency and measures of spread.

Content Area: Mathematics

supplementary angles

Two angles that have a sum of 180 degrees.

Content Area: Mathematics

supply

The amount of some product which is available to consumers.

Content Area: Social Studies

surface area

Total area of the exterior surfaces of a solid.

Content Area: Mathematics

sustainability

The ability to balance human need for resources with the desire to preserve them.

Content Area: Social Studies

symbol

An image representing something else.

Content Area: Visual Arts

symbolism

1 Something that represents something else. 2 The use of an object, person, or event to represent an abstract idea: a flag for the country, a star for a religious idea.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

symbolism

An artistic movement in the late 19th century that tried to express abstract or mystical ideas through the symbolic use of images.

Content Area: Visual Arts

symmetrical

Identical on both sides of a central line.

Content Area: Dance

symmetry

The correspondence in size, form, and arrangement of parts on opposite sides of a plane, line, or point: a figure that has line symmetry has two halves which coincide if folded along its line of symmetry.

Content Area: Mathematics

sympathetic audience

Listeners used to dealing with language learners and who try harder to figure out the meaning of the speaker.

Content Area: World Languages

syntax

Area of linguistics focusing on the internal structure of sentences.

Content Area: World Languages

synthesis

The combination of separate parts or elements to form something new.

Content Area: Visual Arts

synthesize

1 To combine ideas to form new ones. 2 To formulate a new idea out of previous ideas.

Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating

system of linear equations

Two or more linear equations that describe conditions imposed simultaneously: x+y=2, and 3x + 2y = 5.

Content Area: Mathematics

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