New Colorado P-12 Academic Standards

Current Display Filter: Reading, Writing and Communicating - Eighth Grade

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Communication skills and interviewing techniques are required to gather information and to develop and deliver oral presentations

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly. (CCSS: SL.8.1)
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion. (CCSS: SL.8.1a)
    • Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed. (CCSS: SL.8.1b)
    • Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others' questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas. (CCSS: SL.8.1c)
    • Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented. (CCSS: SL.8.1d)
    • Identify a central idea and prepare and ask relevant interview questions for researching and developing ideas further
    • Evaluate the effectiveness of the techniques used and information gained from the interview
    • Give a planned oral presentation to a specific audience for an intended purpose
    • Demonstrate appropriate verbal and nonverbal delivery techniques (clear enunciation, gesture, volume, pace, use of visuals, and language) for intended effect
  2. Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation. (CCSS: SL.8.2)
  3. Delineate a speaker's argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced. (CCSS: SL.8.3)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do delivery techniques change in relation to audience purpose or content?
  2. What makes a good interview?
  3. How do presenters determine what information is relevant when preparing a report or presentation?
  4. How do speakers know if an audience is actively engaged in a presentation?

Relevance & Application:

  1. When hiring, a supervisor must develop and use effective interview techniques to select the proper candidate.
  2. Public speakers can study theatre arts to improve their presentation skills.
  3. Audio and video recording technologies assist in studying interview footage to assimilate relevant information.
  4. Electronic presentation tools can be used to enhance oral presentations.
  5. Long distance interviews can be conducted electronically.

Nature Of:

  1. Skilled communicators use dialogue to understand and to be understood, with consideration for self and others.
  2. Skilled communicators must be open to the ideas of others.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. A variety of response strategies clarifies meaning or messages

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (CCSS: SL.8.4)
  2. Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. (CCSS: SL.8.5)
  3. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (CCSS: SL.8.6)
  4. Paraphrase speaker's meaning
  5. Ask questions to clarify inferences

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do people develop good listening skills?
  2. How do audience members determine the meaning of nonverbal cues?
  3. Why is it important to understand the speaker's background?
  4. How is asking questions a useful strategy in learning?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Public speakers use appropriate gestures, facial expressions, posture, and body language in a variety of situations (such as resolving conflicts, negotiating, and presenting reports).
  2. Professionals use oral communication skills to foster collaboration. For example, jury members are required to determine if a witness is telling the truth; business executives work in teams to complete a project on time.
  3. Computer animation technologies portray the nonverbal intent of a character.
  4. Use electronic tools, such as word mapping techniques, to analyze a speaker's meaning.

Nature Of:

  1. Skilled listeners recognize the contributions of others.
  2. Skilled listeners listen and ask good questions.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Quality comprehension and interpretation of literary texts demand self-monitoring and self-assessment

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (CCSS: RL.8.1)
    • Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text. (CCSS: RL.8.2)
    • Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision. (CCSS: RL.8.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts. (CCSS: RL.8.4)
    • Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style. (CCSS: RL.8.5)
    • Analyze how differences in the points of view of the characters and the audience or reader (e.g., created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor. (CCSS: RL.8.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors. (CCSS: RL.8.7)
    • Use graphic organizers and note-taking formats while reading to map relationships among implied or explicit ideas or viewpoints
    • Develop and share interpretations of literary works of personal interest
    • Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new. (CCSS: RL.8.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RL.8.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What motivates you to keep reading a book?
  2. How do authors develop theme?
  3. How do authors convey mood?
  4. How do different authors approach story elements?
  5. Why does a particular literary work hold value for someone?

Relevance & Application:

  1. On a daily basis, people are confronted with multiple points of view. Analyzing viewpoints and perspectives will help them see both sides of an issue.
  2. Having the opportunity to explore a variety of authors and literature will expand personal interest and choice of reading.
  3. Dialoging with others in book clubs and via social networking sites for books such as Shelfari and Library Thing allow students to explore other points of view around literature.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers are able to connect with author's style, tone, and mood to support their own personal selections.
  2. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RST.6-8.1-10)
  3. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RH.6-8.1-10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Quality comprehension and interpretation of informational and persuasive texts demand monitoring and self-assessment

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (CCSS: RI.8.1)
    • Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text. (CCSS: RI.8.2)
    • Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories). (CCSS: RI.8.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts. (CCSS: RI.8.4)
    • Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept. (CCSS: RI.8.5)
    • Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints. (CCSS: RI.8.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea. (CCSS: RI.8.7)
    • Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced. (CCSS: RI.8.8)
    • Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation. (CCSS: RI.8.9)
    • Interpret and explain informational texts of personal interest
  4. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RI.8.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why is this author qualified to write this informational text?
  2. How do visuals convey information?
  3. How can bias influence the reader?
  4. Which texts do you connect with and why?
  5. What elements make a text more attractive to some readers than others?
  6. Why is it important to critique an author's credentials?

Relevance & Application:

  1. While reading science and social studies texts, analyze details for relevance and accuracy.
  2. When reading for information, people think about the credibility of the author to be sure that the information is current and accurate.
  3. Voters need to understand both the gist of a proposition and the details.
  4. The exponentially growing access to information of all types on the Internet make it essential for students to practice and hone skills for evaluating online information and learn how to efficiently and effectively locate reliable information sources.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers understand there may be multiple points of view on the same topic.
  2. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RST.6-8.1-10)
  3. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RH.6-8.1-10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Context, grammar, and word choice influence the understanding of literary, persuasive, and informational texts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases based on grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (CCSS: L.8.4)
    • Select and employ strategies to persist when encountering unknown or ambiguous words or difficult passages
    • Explain how authors use language to influence audience perceptions of events, people, and ideas
    • Explain how word choice and sentence structure are used to achieve specific effects (such as tone, voice, and mood)
    • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.8.4a)
    • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., precede, recede, secede). (CCSS: L.8.4b)
    • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. (CCSS: L.8.4c)
    • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). (CCSS: L.8.4d)
  2. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS: L.8.5)
    • Interpret figures of speech (e.g. verbal irony, puns) in context. (CCSS: L.8.5a)
    • Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words. (CCSS: L.8.5b)
    • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., bullheaded, willful, firm, persistent, resolute). (CCSS: L.8.5c)
  3. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. (CCSS: L.8.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How has language changed through the centuries? Is the English language still changing? If so, how does that happen?
  2. How can grammar and texting cause some conflicting points of view?
  3. How can use of dialect or jargon bias a listener? How are words misinterpreted?
  4. How does the expression "don't judge a book by its cover" apply to eighth-graders?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Columnists and blog writers have a distinctive voice, tone, and mood.
  2. Using online dictionaries and built in dictionary tools contained within subscription databases can enhance student ability to increase their vocabulary and understanding of online reading

Nature Of:

  1. People use different types of language depending on their setting and their audience.
  2. People adjust language according to the purpose of their message: In some situations, they may need more formal language to establish credibility.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Stylistic devices and descriptive details in literary and narrative texts are organized for a variety of audiences and purposes and evaluated for quality

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences. (CCSS: W.8.3)
    • Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically. (CCSS: W.8.3a)
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters. (CCSS: W.8.3b)
    • Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events. (CCSS: W.8.3c)
    • Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events. (CCSS: W.8.3d)
    • Establish and maintain a controlling idea appropriate to audience and purpose
    • Integrate the use of organizing techniques that break up sequential presentation of chronology in a story (use of foreshadowing; starting in the middle of the action, then filling in background information using flashbacks)
    • Write using poetic techniques (alliteration, onomatopoeia); figurative language (simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole); and graphic elements (capital letters, line length, word position) for intended effect
    • Express voice and tone and influence readers' perceptions by varying vocabulary, sentence structure, and descriptive details
    • Use mentor text/authors to help craft appropriate technique
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events. (CCSS: W.8.3e)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What are the elements of a well-developed character?
  2. Why is visual imagery a skill that an author uses to create tone?
  3. What makes characters interesting to the reader?
  4. How does foreshadowing create connections for the reader?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Readers who study key story elements will enhance their work as writers.
  2. People who monitor what they are reading and attend to how a text is organized become more organized writers.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers realize the importance and relevance of the setting.
  2. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: WHST.6-8.1-6 and 10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Ideas and supporting details in informational and persuasive texts are organized for a variety of audiences and purposes and evaluated for quality

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. (CCSS: W.8.1)
    • Develop texts that offer a comparison, show cause and effect, or support a point
    • Write and justify a personal interpretation of literary or informational text that includes a thesis, supporting details from the literature, and a conclusion
    • Select and use appropriate rhetorical techniques (such as asking questions, using humor, etc.) for a variety of purposes
    • Use specific details and references to text or relevant citations to support focus or judgment
    • Use planning strategies to select and narrow topic
    • Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. (CCSS: W.8.1a)
    • Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. (CCSS: W.8.1b)
    • Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. (CCSS: W.8.1c)
    • Establish and maintain a formal style. (CCSS: W.8.1d)
    • Explain and imitate emotional and logical appeals used by writers who are trying to persuade an audience
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. (CCSS: W.8.1e)
  2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. (CCSS: W.8.2)
    • Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. (CCSS: W.8.2a)
    • Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples. (CCSS: W.8.2b)
    • Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts. (CCSS: W.8.2c)
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. (CCSS: W.8.2d)
    • Establish and maintain a formal style. (CCSS: W.8.2e)
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented. (CCSS: W.8.2f)
    • Elaborate to give detail, add depth, and continue the flow of an idea

Inquiry Questions:

  1. When tools do readers use to summarize ideas as they read?
  2. Why do authors like to persuade readers?
  3. If you could persuade someone to do something that you wanted, what would that be? How might you go about persuading them in writing?
  4. What types of words do authors use when they are trying to convince or persuade others to do what they want?
  5. When can an author's influence or persuasion be dangerous? Helpful?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Convincing someone to vote for a candidate in an election usually requires comparisons, details and citations.
  2. Consumers Reports gathers, analyzes, and publishes product comparisons that evaluate for quality.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers know how important it is to connect prior knowledge with new information.
  2. Writers write for pleasure and to influence people.
  3. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: WHST.6-8.1-6 and 10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Editing writing for grammar, usage, mechanics, and clarity is an essential trait of a well-written document

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.8.1)
    • Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences. (CCSS: L.8.1a)
    • Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice. (CCSS: L.8.1b)
    • Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood. (CCSS: L.8.1c)
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood. (CCSS: L.8.1d)
    • Use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs correctly in sentences
    • Combine sentences with subordinate conjunctions
    • Use subject-verb agreement with intervening phrases and clauses
    • Identify main and subordinate clauses and use that knowledge to write varied, strong, correct, complete sentences
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.8.2)
    • Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break. (CCSS: L.8.2a)
    • Format and punctuate dialogue correctly
    • Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission. (CCSS: L.8.2b)
    • Spell correctly. (CCSS: L.8.2c)
  3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (CCSS: L.8.3)
    • Use verbs in the active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects (e.g., emphasizing the actor or the action; expressing uncertainty or describing a state contrary to fact). (CCSS: L.8.3a)
  4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (CCSS: W.8.4)
  5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (CCSS: W.8.5)
  6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others. (CCSS: W.8.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does the use of correct grammar, usage, and mechanics add clarity to writing?
  2. How can various tools help a writer edit work?
  3. What are some common punctuation errors? How can writers avoid these challenges in the future?
  4. When do writers use software tools in their writing?
  5. When is it beneficial to use the thesaurus?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Writing guides are used as an essential tool for making a piece of writing professional.
  2. Job interviews often include the evaluation of correct grammar and the request for a writing sample.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers often use the tools from editing software programs, but don't want to become dependent on them so they will try to figure it out on their own and then double-check their work using the tools.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Individual research projects begin with information obtained from a variety of sources, and is organized, documented, and presented using logical procedures

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. (CCSS: W.8.7)
    • Differentiate between paraphrasing and using direct quotes in a report
    • Organize and present research appropriately for audience and purpose
    • Present findings
  2. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (CCSS: W.8.8)
    • Differentiate between primary and secondary source materials
    • Document information and quotations; use a consistent format for footnotes or endnotes; and use standard bibliographic format to document sources
    • Write reports based on research that include quotations, footnotes or endnotes, and a bibliography or works cited page
  3. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (CCSS: W.8.9)
    • Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new"). (CCSS: W.8.a)
    • Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced"). (CCSS: W.8.9b)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do we use the computer and other media to answer questions about a subject?
  2. What is the difference between a primary and secondary source?
  3. How might you invent a new set of rules about the use and style of footnotes and endnotes which you find more creative?
  4. When is a primary source unethical to use?

Relevance & Application:

  1. New forms of chemicals and medicines are approved and given to people to save or improve the quality of lives only after research, bibliographies and citations are presented.
  2. Search engines can exclusively do their scanning for logical and related sources based on direct quotes, footnotes and quotations in the research community networks.
  3. An understanding of intellectual property can be obtained by participating and publishing online.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers know conducting reliable and valid research is an ethical responsibility.
  2. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: WHST.6-8.7-9)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Common fallacies and errors occur in reasoning

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Analyze the purpose, question at issue, information, points of view, implications and consequences, inferences, assumptions, and concepts inherent in thinking
  2. Determine strengths and weaknesses of their thinking and thinking of others by using criteria including relevance, clarity, accuracy, fairness, significance, depth, breadth, logic, and precision
  3. Identify common reasoning fallacies in print and non-printed sources
  4. Differentiate between valid and faulty generalizations

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do you identify common reasoning fallacies in your thinking and others'?
  2. Is a generalization usually acceptable in research reporting?
  3. When students are reading text, how do they monitor clarity and bias about what others are saying?
  4. What are common fallacies found in print and non-print?
  5. In a global conversation, how do assumptions and "common" reasoned thinking in research work?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Valid and reliable information is a signature of acceptable research.
  2. Researchers monitor the sources that are selected and check the credibility of the author or the source before it is used in their work.
  3. Online information can be published by anyone. Use rigorous evaluation processes to determine accuracy.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers acknowledge that there is faulty reasoning in communication, which keeps them aware of what they must do to make sure their work is clear and accurate.
  2. Researchers understand that making good decisions, based on careful reasoning, are important to the quality of life.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Quality reasoning relies on supporting evidence in media

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Take a position on an issue and support it using quality reasoning
  2. Analyze own or others' appeal for purpose, question at issue, information, points of view, implications and consequences, assumptions, and concepts
  3. Evaluate own or others' appeal for relevance, clarity, accuracy, fairness, significance, depth, breadth, logic, and precision
  4. Use appropriate media to demonstrate reasoning and explain decisions in the creative process

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does someone determine the logic of a position on an issue and support it with quality reasoning and assessment?
  2. How might someone use media to demonstrate multiple points of view?
  3. How does media play a role in fairness?
  4. How is quality reasoning enhanced when multiple mediums are used?
  5. Why is media used to portray different reasons about issues?
  6. What is an example of a time when you looked at two sides of an issue?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Comprehension strategies should be applied to resources used in supporting a position.
  2. Daily, people are confronted with issues and questions that require quality reasoning.
  3. Careful practice and review of reasoning to determine if it is faulty or reliable can help people as they make important decisions (such as voting or buying an expensive item).
  4. The ability to prove reasoning is helpful when explaining an opinion to someone else.

Nature Of:

  1. Quality reasoning enhances the creation of media.
  2. Clearly articulating thinking and reasoning is essential to communication.
  3. Researchers who listen to others in a fair-minded way increase their skills in reasoning.