New Colorado P-12 Academic Standards

Current Display Filter: Reading, Writing and Communicating - Kindergarten

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Kindergarten
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Oral communication skills are built within a language-rich environment

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Describe familiar people, places, things, and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional detail. (CCSS: SL.K.4)
  2. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail. (CCSS: SL.K.5)
  3. Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly. (CCSS: SL.K.6)
  4. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent. (CCSS: L.K.5a)
  5. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms). (CCSS: L.K.5b)
  6. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at school that are colorful). (CCSS: L.K.5c)
  7. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut, prance) by acting out the meanings. (CCSS: L.K.5d)
  8. Express words and word meanings as encountered in books and conversation
  9. Use new vocabulary that is directly taught through reading, speaking, and listening
  10. Relate new vocabulary to prior knowledge

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why are the sounds and letters in words important?
  2. Why is it important to learn new words and build speaking vocabularies?
  3. When talking to a partner, why is important to speak clearly and use words the person understands?
  4. How would the world be different if people didn't speak to each other?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Provide opportunities and tools for students to see and use written language for a variety of purposes, drawing attention to specific letters and words. (Early math concepts require a student to identify and sort common shapes and identify simple patterns.)
  2. Electronic sources provide a tool for displaying word and letters.
  3. Animation can enhance story telling.

Nature Of:

  1. Good communicators seek out opportunities to learn and use new words that build and enhance their oral language skills.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Communication relies on effective verbal and nonverbal skills

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. (CCSS: SL.K.1)
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others and taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion). (CCSS: SL.K.1a)
    • Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges. (CCSS: SL.K.1b)
  2. Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood. (CCSS: SL.K.2)
  3. Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood. (CCSS: SL.K.3)
  4. Listen with comprehension to follow two-step directions.
  5. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts. (CCSS: L.K.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What are proper ways for people to ask for something they need?
  2. Why is it important for people to wait their turn before speaking?
  3. What does it mean to be a good listener?

Relevance & Application:

  1. When asking for directions it is important to ask clarifying questions to avoid getting lost.
  2. Speaking politely to customers and acknowledging their concerns is important to people who work in stores and restaurants.

Nature Of:

  1. Good communicators are courteous and speak with respect for others.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Vocal sounds produce words and meaning to create early knowledge of phonemic awareness

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Identify and create rhyming words
  2. Identify and create alliterations
  3. Identify words orally according to shared beginning or ending sounds
  4. Blend sounds orally to make one-syllable words
  5. Segment one-syllable words into sounds
  6. Segment spoken words into onset (initial consonant sounds) and rime (vowel to end of syllable)
  7. Identify the initial, medial, and final phoneme (speech sound) of spoken words

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why are phonemes (speech sounds) important?
  2. What is the difference between phonemes (speech sounds) and other sounds?
  3. Could people communicate well if they could only use five words?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Identifying differences between common sounds in the home is necessary for safety and everyday living (such as the phone and doorbell, smoke alarm and kitchen timer).
  2. Recorded sources of sample sounds are used to help clarify the spoken word.

Nature Of:

  1. The ability to segment and blend phonemes facilitates spelling and decoding.
  2. Phonological and phonemic awareness prepares the brain for reading and spelling.
  3. The ability to notice and manipulate phonemes orally is essential for successful reading development.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Kindergarten
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. A concept of print to read and a solid comprehension of literary texts are the building blocks for reading

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (CCSS: RL.K.1)
    • With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details. (CCSS: RL.K.2)
    • With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story. (CCSS: RL.K.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text. (CCSS: RL.K.4)
    • Recognize common types of texts (e.g., storybooks, poems). (CCSS: RL.K.5)
    • With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling the story. (CCSS: RL.K.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts). (CCSS: RL.K.7)
    • With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories. (CCSS: RL.K.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity to:
    • Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. (CCSS: RL.K.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. During a picture-walk through a book, what do readers predict? Why?
  2. What words can readers use to describe the main character in a story?
  3. Was the title of this story a good title? What could be another title?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Thinking about the characters in a story helps make a connection to them.
  2. Online games and computer software provide a means to practice identifying main characters, setting, key events, arranging events in order.

Nature Of:

  1. Reading helps people understand themselves and make connections to the world.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. A concept of print to read and a solid comprehension of informational text are the building blocks for reading

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (CCSS: RI.K.1)
    • With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. (CCSS: RI.K.2)
    • With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text. (CCSS: RI.K.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text. (CCSS: RI.K.4)
    • Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book. (CCSS: RI.K.5)
    • Name the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information in a text. (CCSS: RI.K.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear (e.g., what person, place, thing, or idea in the text an illustration depicts). (CCSS: RI.K.7)
    • With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text. (CCSS: RI.K.8)
    • With prompting and support, identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures). (CCSS: RI.K.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity to:
    • Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. (CCSS: RI.K.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do the illustrations help you figure out the meaning of the text?
  2. Explain why informational text is not read like a literary text.

Relevance & Application:

  1. Environmental print, signs, or symbols help people follow directions (such as walk or wait street crossing signs, routine schedules).
  2. Environmental print, signs, or symbols help to organize daily life (put materials or toys away).
  3. When readers read or hear information, they remember what is learned and share information with others.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers make connections to what they are reading

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Decoding words in print requires alphabet recognition and knowledge of letter sounds

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. (CCSS: RF.K.1)
    • Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page. (CCSS: RF.K.1a)
    • Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters. (CCSS: RF.K.1b)
    • Understand that words are separated by spaces in print. (CCSS: RF.K.1c)
    • Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet. (CCSS: RF.K.1d)
  2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes). (CCSS: RF.K.2)
    • Recognize and produce rhyming words. (CCSS: RF.K.2a)
    • Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words. (CCSS: RF.K.2b)
    • Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words. (CCSS: RF.K.2c)
    • Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words. (This does not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.) (CCSS: RF.K.2d)
    • Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words. (CCSS: RF.K.2e)
    • Identify phonemes for letters.
  3. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content. (CCSS: L.K.4)
    • Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck). (CCSS: L.K.4a)
    • Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, pre-, -ful, -less) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word. (CCSS: L.K.4b)
  4. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. (CCSS: RF.K3)
    • Demonstrate basic knowledge of letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary or most frequent sound for each consonant. (CCSS: RF.K.3a)
    • Associate the long and short sounds with the common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels. (CCSS: RF.K.3b)
    • Read common high-frequency words by sight (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does). (CCSS: RF.K.3c)
    • Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ. (CCSS: RF.K.3d)
  5. Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding. (CCSS: RF.K.4)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do phonemes (speech sounds) connect to graphemes (letters and letter clusters)?
  2. What letters are needed to spell the word _______?
  3. What sounds are in the word _______?
  4. How many sounds are in the word "cat"? (/k/ /a/ /t/ - three sounds)
  5. Where do you find other letters in our room that are like letters in your name?
  6. Why is an uppercase letter used at the beginning of a name?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Readers can play with letter-sounds to make many new words (am, tam, Sam).
  2. Readers recognize common words that have similar spelling patterns (ant/plant, Tim/rim/brim, sun/run/fun).
  3. Using digital and video recording devices offer practice letter-sounds in order to hear and analyze their own voice.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers understand that phonemes (speech sounds) are connected to print using graphemes (letters).
  2. Readers know all of the letter sounds and letter names.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Kindergarten
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Text types and purposes, labels, and familiar words are used to communicate information and ideas

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is...). (CCSS: W.K.1)
  2. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic. (CCSS: W.K.2)
  3. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened. (CCSS: W.K.3)
  4. With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed. (CCSS: W.K.5)
  5. With guidance and support from adults, explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (CCSS: W.K.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do people share ideas with print?
  2. What happened in this story? (If needed, prompt with a sentence stem.)
  3. Why did the author like writing this story? (He/she likes dogs.)
  4. What comes at the beginning of each sentence? What comes at the end?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Family photo albums are sequenced and labeled to tell a simple story.
  2. Drawing the scenes from an oral tale illustrates a person's interpretation of a story.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers can communicate their ideas in many forms.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Appropriate mechanics and conventions are used to create simple texts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.K.1)
    • Print many upper- and lowercase letters. (CCSS: L.K.1a)
    • Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs. (CCSS: L.K.1b)
    • Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes). (CCSS: L.K.1c)
    • Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how). (CCSS: L.K.1d)
    • Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with). (CCSS: L.K.1e)
    • Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities. (CCSS: L.K.1f)
    • Use proper spacing between words
    • Write left to right and top to bottom
    • Use appropriate pencil grip
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.K.2)
    • Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I. (CCSS: L.K.2a)
    • Recognize and name end punctuation. (CCSS: L.K.2b)
    • Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes). (CCSS: L.K.2c)
    • Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships. (CCSS: L.K.2d)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does a sentence begin?
  2. How does a sentence end?
  3. How does a writer show that one sentence ends and another begins?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Phonetically spelled words usually are seen in favorite children's books.
  2. Video software has the advantage of audio and animation to emphasize the utility of punctuation and capital letters.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers use upper- and lowercase letters when appropriate.
  2. Writers use proper spacing between words.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Kindergarten
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. A variety of locations must be explored to find information that answers questions of interest

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Dictate questions that arise during instruction
  2. Use a variety of resources (such as direct observation, trade books, texts read aloud or viewed) to answer questions of interest through guided inquiry

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do people decide on a question to share and ask?
  2. How do people check questions to see if they are relevant and important to learning?
  3. If the author visited today, what would you ask?
  4. What resources can people use to help find possible answers to their question(s)?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Books are just one tool for finding answers.
  2. Life is full of questions and people need to know the avenues for answering them.
  3. Good readers ask questions while they are reading.
  4. Students use many different types of books to learn.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers ask questions when they look at the pictures and words in their books.
  2. Researchers continually find resources to support, challenge, or change thinking.
  3. Questions are where learning begins.
  4. People redirect their thinking when the first ideas they have don't make sense.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Identify purpose, information and question an issue

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them). (CCSS: W.K.7)
    • Identify a clear purpose for research or inquiry (If the class is learning about trees, is my need to know more about pets related?)
    • Identify a significant question they are trying to answer, problem they are trying to solve, or issue they are trying to resolve
    • Gather relevant information and check various information sources for accuracy (In a class discussion focused on butterflies, students ask questions related to a butterfly and the life cycle.)
  2. With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (CCSS: W.K.8)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What is the purpose? Is the purpose clear?
  2. What is the question at issue? Is the question important?
  3. Why is it important to solve problems?
  4. What was a time when you wanted to solve a problem but you didn't know how?
  5. Who helped you solve the problem? How did you feel when it was over?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Rumors relayed by a friend may not be true.
  2. Stories about a topic not related to the issue are interesting but not always important at the time.

Nature Of:

  1. All reasoning has a purpose based on information and is an attempt to figure something out.
  2. Researchers know that for thinking to improve, it is necessary to ask critical questions.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Quality of thinking depends on the quality of questions

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Ask primary questions of clarity, significance, relevance, and accuracy to improve quality of thinking
  2. State, elaborate, and exemplify the concept of fair-mindedness

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does this relate to the problem?
  2. How does that bear on the question?
  3. How does that help to resolve the issue?
  4. Is this the most important question to consider?
  5. How could check on that?
  6. How could we find out if that is true?
  7. How could verify or test that?
  8. Could the source illustrate what he/she means?
  9. What does it mean to be fair-minded?

Relevance & Application:

  1. People ask clarifying questions to think better.
  2. People think about clear ideas by asking questions.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers understand that for thinking to improve, it is necessary to ask critical questions.
  2. All reasoning has a purpose based on information and an attempt to figure something out.