New Colorado P12 Academic Standards
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Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: High School
Standard: 1. Number Sense, Properties, and Operations
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^{1} For example, we define \(5^\frac{1}{3}\) to be the cube root of 5 because we want \((5^\frac{1}{3})^3=5^{(\frac{1}{3})3}\) to hold, so \((5^\frac{1}{3})^3\) must equal 5. (CCSS: NRN.1)
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Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 1. Number Sense, Properties, and Operations
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^{1} Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. (CCSS: 8.NS.1)
^{2} e.g., \(\pi^2\). (CCSS: 8.NS.2)
For example, by truncating the decimal expansion of \(\sqrt{2}\), show that \(\sqrt{2}\) is between 1 and 2, then between 1.4 and 1.5, and explain how to continue on to get better approximations. (CCSS: 8.NS.2)
^{3} For example, \(3^2\times3^{–5}=3^{–3}=\frac{1}{3}^3=\frac{1}{27}\). (CCSS: 8.EE.1)
^{4} Know that \(\sqrt{2}\) is irrational. (CCSS: 8.EE.2)
^{5} For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 times \(10^8\) and the population of the world as 7 times \(10^9\), and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger. (CCSS: 8.EE.3)
^{6} e.g., use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading. (CCSS: 8.EE.4)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Seventh Grade
Standard: 1. Number Sense, Properties, and Operations
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^{1} For example, if a person walks 1/2 mile in each 1/4 hour, compute the unit rate as the complex fraction \(^\frac{1}{2}/_\frac{1}{4}\) miles per hour, equivalently 2 miles per hour. (CCSS: 7.RP.1)
^{2} e.g., by testing for equivalent ratios in a table or graphing on a coordinate plane and observing whether the graph is a straight line through the origin. (CCSS: 7.RP.2a)
^{3} For example, if total cost t is proportional to the number n of items purchased at a constant price p, the relationship between the total cost and the number of items can be expressed as t = pn. (CCSS: 7.RP.2c)
^{4} Examples: simple interest, tax, markups and markdowns, gratuities and commissions, fees, percent increase and decrease, percent error. (CCSS: 7.RP.3)
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^{5} For example, a hydrogen atom has 0 charge because its two constituents are oppositely charged. (CCSS: 7.NS.1a)
^{6} Understand that multiplication is extended from fractions to rational numbers by requiring that operations continue to satisfy the properties of operations, particularly the distributive property, leading to products such as (–1)(–1) = 1 and the rules for multiplying signed numbers. (CCSS: 7.NS.2a)
^{7} Understand that integers can be divided, provided that the divisor is not zero, and every quotient of integers (with nonzero divisor) is a rational number. If p and q are integers, then –(p/q) = (–p)/q = p/(–q). (CCSS: 7.NS.2b)
Interpret quotients of rational numbers by describing realworld contexts. (CCSS: 7.NS.2b)
^{8} Computations with rational numbers extend the rules for manipulating fractions to complex fractions. (CCSS: 7.NS.3)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Sixth Grade
Standard: 1. Number Sense, Properties, and Operations
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^{1} For example, "The ratio of wings to beaks in the bird house at the zoo was 2:1, because for every 2 wings there was 1 beak." "For every vote candidate A received, candidate C received nearly three votes." (CCSS: 6.RP.1)
^{2} For example, "This recipe has a ratio of 3 cups of flour to 4 cups of sugar, so there is 3/4 cup of flour for each cup of sugar." "We paid $75 for 15 hamburgers, which is a rate of $5 per hamburger." (CCSS: 6.RP.2)
^{3} e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations. (CCSS: 6.RP.3)
^{4} For example, if it took 7 hours to mow 4 lawns, then at that rate, how many lawns could be mowed in 35 hours? At what rate were lawns being mowed? (CCSS: 6.RP.3b)
^{5} e.g., 30% of a quantity means 30/100 times the quantity. (CCSS: 6.RP.3c)
^{6} manipulate and transform units appropriately when multiplying or dividing quantities. (CCSS: 6.RP.3d)
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^{7} For example, express 36 + 8 as 4 (9 + 2). (CCSS: 6.NS.4)
^{8} For example, create a story context for (2/3) ÷ (3/4) and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient; use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (2/3) ÷ (3/4) = 8/9 because 3/4 of 8/9 is 2/3. (CCSS: 6.NS.1)
^{9} In general, (a/b) ÷ (c/d) = ad/bc.). (CCSS: 6.NS.1)
^{10} How much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 3/4cup servings are in 2/3 of a cup of yogurt? How wide is a rectangular strip of land with length 3/4 mi and area 1/2 square mi? (CCSS: 6.NS.1)
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^{11} e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, credits/debits, positive/negative electric charge). (CCSS: 6.NS.5)
^{12} Understand signs of numbers in ordered pairs as indicating locations in quadrants of the coordinate plane. (CCSS: 6.NS.6)
^{13} e.g., –(–3) = 3, and that 0 is its own opposite. (CCSS: 6.NS.6a)
^{14} For example, interpret –3 > –7 as a statement that –3 is located to the right of –7 on a number line oriented from left to right. (CCSS: 6.NS.7a)
^{15} For example, write –3\(^o\)C > –7\(^o\) C to express the fact that –3\(^o\) C is warmer than –7\(^o\) C. (CCSS: 6.NS.7b)
^{16} For example, for an account balance of –30 dollars, write –30 = 30 to describe the size of the debt in dollars. (CCSS: 6.NS.7c)
^{17} For example, recognize that an account balance less than –30 dollars represents a debt greater than 30 dollars. (CCSS: 6.NS.7d)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 1. Number Sense, Properties, and Operations
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^{1} e.g., 347.392 = 3 x 100 + 4 x 10 + 7 x 1 + 3 x 1/10 + 9 x 1/100 + 2 x 1/1000. (CCSS: 5.NBT.3a)
^{2} e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m. (CCSS: 5.MD.1)
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^{3} with up to fourdigit dividends and twodigit divisors. (CCSS: 5.NBT.6)
^{4} For example, express the calculation "add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2" as \(2 \times (8 + 7)\). Recognize that 3 × (18932 + 921) is three times as large as 18932 + 921, without having to calculate the indicated sum or product. (CCSS: 5.OA.2)
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^{5} For example, recognize an incorrect result 2/5 + 1/2 = 3/7, by observing that 3/7 < 1/2. (CCSS: 5.NF.2)
^{6} in such a way as to produce an equivalent sum or difference of fractions with like denominators. For example, 2/3 + 5/4 = 8/12 + 15/12 = 23/12. (In general, a/b + c/d = (ad + bc)/bd.). (CCSS: 5.NF.1)
^{7} including cases of unlike denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. (CCSS: 5.NF.2)
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^{8} e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. For example, interpret 3/4 as the result of dividing 3 by 4, noting that 3/4 multiplied by 4 equals 3, and that when 3 wholes are shared equally among 4 people each person has a share of size 3/4. If 9 people want to share a 50pound sack of rice equally by weight, how many pounds of rice should each person get? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie? (CCSS: 5.NF.3)
^{9} For example, use a visual fraction model to show (2/3) × 4 = 8/3, and create a story context for this equation. Do the same with (2/3) × (4/5) = 8/15. (CCSS: 5.NF.4a)
^{10} Explain why multiplying a given number by a fraction greater than 1 results in a product greater than the given number. (CCSS: 5.NF.5b)
Explain why multiplying a given number by a fraction less than 1 results in a product smaller than the given number (CCSS: 5.NF.5b)
^{11} e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. (CCSS: 5.NF.6)
^{12} For example, create a story context for (1/3) ÷ 4, and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (1/3) ÷ 4 = 1/12 because (1/12) × 4 = 1/3. (CCSS: 5.NF.7a)
^{13} For example, create a story context for 4 ÷ (1/5), and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that 4 ÷ (1/5) = 20 because 20 × (1/5) = 4. (CCSS: 5.NF.7b)
^{14} e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, how much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 1/3cup servings are in 2 cups of raisins? (CCSS: 5.NF.7c)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Fourth Grade
Standard: 1. Number Sense, Properties, and Operations
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^{1} For example, express 3/10 as 30/100, and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/100. (CCSS: 4.NF.6)
^{2} For example, rewrite 0.62 as 62/100; describe a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line diagram. (CCSS: 4.NF.6)
^{3} Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual model. (CCSS: 4.NF.7)
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^{4} Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n × a)/(n × b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. (CCSS: 4.NF.1)
^{5} e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, (CCSS: 4.NF.2)
^{6} e.g., by using a visual fraction model. (CCSS: 4.NF.2)
^{7} Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b. (CCSS: 4.NF.3)
Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole. (CCSS: 4.NF.3a)
Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 ; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8 ; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8. (CCSS: 4.NF.3b)
^{8} e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction. (CCSS: 4.NF.3c)
^{9} e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. (CCSS: 4.NF.3d)
^{10} For example, use a visual fraction model to represent 5/4 as the product 5 × (1/4), recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5 × (1/4). (CCSS: 4.NF.4a)
^{11} For example, 3 × (2/5) as 6 × (1/5), recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n × (a/b) = (n × a)/b.) (CCSS: 4.NF.4b)
^{12} e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, if each person at a party will eat 3/8 of a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie? (CCSS: 4.NF.4c)
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^{3} e.g., interpret 35 = 5 × 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. (CCSS: 4.OA.1)
^{4} e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison. (CCSS: 4.OA.2)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Third Grade
Standard: 1. Number Sense, Properties, and Operations
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^{1} e.g., 9 × 80, 5 × 60. (CCSS: 3.NBT.3)
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^{2} Represent a fraction 1/b on a number line diagram by defining the interval from 0 to 1 as the whole and partitioning it into b equal parts. Recognize that each part has size 1/b and that the endpoint of the part based at 0 locates the number 1/b on the number line. (CCSS: 3.NF.2a)
Represent a fraction a/b on a number line diagram by marking off a lengths 1/b from 0. Recognize that the resulting interval has size a/b and that its endpoint locates the number a/b on the number line. (CCSS: 3.NF.2b)
^{3} e.g., 1/2 = 2/4, 4/6 = 2/3). (CCSS: 3.NF.3b)
^{4} e.g., by using a visual fraction model.(CCSS: 3.NF.3b)
^{5} Examples: Express 3 in the form 3 = 3/1; recognize that 6/1 = 6; locate 4/4 and 1 at the same point of a number line diagram. (CCSS: 3.NF.3c)
^{6} e.g., by using a visual fraction model. (CCSS: 3.NF.3d)
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^{7} e.g., interpret 5 × 7 as the total number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each. (CCSS: 3.OA.1)
For example, describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as 5 × 7. (CCSS: 3.OA.1)
^{8} e.g., interpret 56 ÷ 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each. (CCSS: 3.OA.2)
For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 ÷ 8. (CCSS: 3.OA.2)
^{9} e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (CCSS: 3.OA.3)
^{10} For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 × ? = 48, 5 = ? ÷ 3, 6 × 6 = ?. (CCSS: 3.OA.4)
^{11} Examples: If 6 × 4 = 24 is known, then 4 × 6 = 24 is also known. (Commutative property of multiplication.) 3 × 5 × 2 can be found by 3 × 5 = 15, then 15 × 2 = 30, or by 5 × 2 = 10, then 3 × 10 = 30. (Associative property of multiplication.) Knowing that 8 × 5 = 40 and 8 × 2 = 16, one can find 8 × 7 as 8 × (5 + 2) = (8 × 5) + (8 × 2) = 40 + 16 = 56. (Distributive property.) (CCSS: 3.OA.5)
^{12} For example, find 32 ÷ 8 by finding the number that makes 32 when multiplied by 8. (CCSS: 3.OA.6)
^{13} e.g., knowing that 8 × 5 = 40, one knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8. (CCSS: 3.OA.7)
^{14} For example, observe that 4 times a number is always even, and explain why 4 times a number can be decomposed into two equal addends. (CCSS: 3.OA.9)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Second Grade
Standard: 1. Number Sense, Properties, and Operations
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^{1} e.g., 706 equals 7 hundreds, 0 tens, and 6 ones. Understand the following as special cases: (CCSS: 2.NBT.1)
100 can be thought of as a bundle of ten tens — called a "hundred." (CCSS: 2.NBT.1a)
The numbers 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine hundreds (and 0 tens and 0 ones). (CCSS: 2.NBT.1b)
^{2} Understand that in adding or subtracting threedigit numbers, one adds or subtracts hundreds and hundreds, tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose or decompose tens or hundreds. (CCSS: 2.NBT.7)
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^{3} e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (CCSS: 2.OA.1)
^{4} e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s. (CCSS: 2.OA.3)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: First Grade
Standard: 1. Number Sense, Properties, and Operations
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^{1} 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones — called a "ten." (CCSS: 1.NBT.2a)
The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. (CCSS: 1.NBT.2b)
The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones). (CCSS: 1.NBT.2c)
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^{2} involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (CCSS: 1.OA.1)
^{3} e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (CCSS: 1.OA.2)
^{4} Examples: If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known. (Commutative property of addition.) To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12. (Associative property of addition.). (CCSS: 1.OA.3)
^{5} For example, subtract 10 – 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8. (CCSS: 1.OA.4)
^{6} e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2. (CCSS: 1.OA.5)
^{7} Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 +7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13). (CCSS: 1.OA.6)
^{8} Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6, 7 = 8 – 1, 5 + 2 = 2 + 5, 4 + 1 = 5 + 2. (CCSS: 1.OA.7)
^{9} For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 + ? = 11, 5 = ? – 3, 6 + 6 = ?. (CCSS: 1.OA.8)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Kindergarten
Standard: 1. Number Sense, Properties, and Operations
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^{1} instead of having to begin at 1. (CCSS: K.CC.2)
^{2} with 0 representing a count of no objects. (CCSS: K.CC.3)
^{3} When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object. (CCSS: K.CC.4a)
Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted. (CCSS: K.CC.4b)
Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger. (CCSS: K.CC.4c)
^{4} Count to answer "how many?" questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration. (CCSS: K.CC.5)
Given a number from 1–20, count out that many objects. (CCSS: K.CC.5)
^{5} e.g., by using matching and counting strategies. (CCSS: K.CC.6)
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^{6} e.g., claps. (CCSS: K.OA.1)
^{7} e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem. (CCSS: K.OA.2)
^{8} e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1). (CCSS: K.OA.3)
^{9} e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation. (CCSS: K.OA.4)
^{10} Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 18 = 10 + 8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. (CCSS: K.NBT.1)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Preschool
Standard: 1. Number Sense, Properties, and Operations
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Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: High School
Standard: 2. Patterns, Functions, and Algebraic Structures
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^{1} If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x). (CCSS: FIF.1)
^{2} For example, the Fibonacci sequence is defined recursively by f(0) = f(1) = 1, f(n+1) = f(n) + f(n1) for n \(\geq\) 1. (CCSS: FIF.3)
^{3} Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity. (CCSS: FIF.4)
^{4} For example, if the function h(n) gives the number of personhours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function. (CCSS: FIF.5)
^{5} presented symbolically or as a table. (CCSS: FIF.6)
^{6} For example, identify percent rate of change in functions such as y = (1.02)t, y = (0.97)t, y = (1.01)12t, y = (1.2)t/10,. (CCSS: FIF.8b)
^{7} For example, given a graph of one quadratic function and an algebraic expression for another, say which has the larger maximum. (CCSS: FIF.9)
^{8} For example, build a function that models the temperature of a cooling body by adding a constant function to a decaying exponential, and relate these functions to the model. (CCSS: FBF.1b)
^{9} both positive and negative. (CCSS: FBF.3)
^{10} Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them. (CCSS: FBF.3)
^{11} Solve an equation of the form f(x) = c for a simple function f that has an inverse and write an expression for the inverse.
For example, f(x) =2 \(x^3\) or f(x) = (x+1)/(x–1) for x \(\neq\) 1. (CCSS: FBF.4a)
Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

Concepts and skills students master:


Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{12} include reading these from a table. (CCSS: FLE.2)
Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

Concepts and skills students master:


Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{13} For example, interpret \(P(1+r)^n\) as the product of P and a factor not depending on P. (CCSS: ASSE.1b)
^{14} For example, see \(x^4  y^4\) as \((x^2)^2 – (y^2)^2\), thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as \((x^2 – y^2)(x^2 + y^2)\). (CCSS: ASSE.2)
^{15} For example the expression \(1.15^t\) can be rewritten as \((1.15^\frac{1}{12})^{12t}\) \(\approx\) \(1.012^{12t}\) to reveal the approximate equivalent monthly interest rate if the annual rate is 15%. (CCSS: ASSE.3c)
^{16} For example, calculate mortgage payments. (CCSS: ASSE.4)
^{17} For a polynomial p(x) and a number a, the remainder on division by x – a is p(a), so p(a) = 0 if and only if (x – a) is a factor of p(x). (CCSS: AAPR.2)
^{18} For example, the polynomial identity \((x^2 + y^2)^2 = (x^2 – y^2)^2 + (2xy)^2\) can be used to generate Pythagorean triples. (CCSS: AAPR.4)
^{19} write \(\frac{a(x)}{b(x)}\) in the form \(q(x) + \frac{r(x)}{b(x)}\), where a(x), b(x), q(x), and r(x) are polynomials with the degree of r(x) less than the degree of b(x), using inspection, long division, or, for the more complicated examples, a computer algebra system. (CCSS: AAPR.6)
Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

Concepts and skills students master:


Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{20} Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions. (CCSS: ACED.1)
^{21} For example, represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods. (CCSS: ACED.3)
^{22} For example, rearrange Ohm's law V = IR to highlight resistance R. (CCSS: ACED.4)
^{23} e.g., for \(x^2 = 49\). (CCSS: AREI.4b)
^{24} e.g., with graphs. (CCSS: AREI.6)
^{25} For example, find the points of intersection between the line y = –3x and the circle \(x^2 + y^2 = 3\). (CCSS: AREI.7)
^{26} which could be a line. (CCSS: AREI.10)
^{27} Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, absolute value, exponential, and logarithmic functions. (CCSS: AREI.11)
^{28} e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations. (CCSS: AREI.11)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 2. Patterns, Functions, and Algebraic Structures
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Concepts and skills students master:


Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{1} For example, compare a distancetime graph to a distancetime equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed. (CCSS: 8.EE.5)
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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{2} Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers). (CCSS: 8.EE.6a)
^{3} For example, 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6. (CCSS: 8.EE.8b)
^{4} For example, given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair. (CCSS: 8.EE.8c)
Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{5} Function notation is not required in 8th grade. (CCSS: 8.F.11)
^{6} For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change. (CCSS: 8.F.2)
^{7} For example, the function \(A = s^2\) giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line. (CCSS: 8.F.3)
^{8} e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear. (CCSS: 8.F.5)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Seventh Grade
Standard: 2. Patterns, Functions, and Algebraic Structures
Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

Concepts and skills students master:


Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{1} For example, a + 0.05a = 1.05a means that "increase by 5%" is the same as "multiply by 1.05." (CCSS: 7.EE.2)
Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

Concepts and skills students master:


Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{2} whole numbers, fractions, and decimals. (CCSS: 7.EE.3)
^{3} For example: If a woman making $25 an hour gets a 10% raise, she will make an additional 1/10 of her salary an hour, or $2.50, for a new salary of $27.50. If you want to place a towel bar 9 3/4 inches long in the center of a door that is 27 1/2 inches wide, you will need to place the bar about 9 inches from each edge; this estimate can be used as a check on the exact computation. (CCSS: 7.EE.3)
^{4} For example, the perimeter of a rectangle is 54 cm. Its length is 6 cm. What is its width? (CCSS: 7.EE.4a)
^{5} For example: As a salesperson, you are paid $50 per week plus $3 per sale. This week you want your pay to be at least $100. Write an inequality for the number of sales you need to make, and describe the solutions. (CCSS: 7.EE.4b)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Sixth Grade
Standard: 2. Patterns, Functions, and Algebraic Structures
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Concepts and skills students master:


Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{1} For example, express the calculation "Subtract y from 5" as 5 – y. (CCSS: 6.EE.2a)
^{2} For example, describe the expression 2 (8 + 7) as a product of two factors; view (8 + 7) as both a single entity and a sum of two terms. (CCSS: 6.EE.2b)
^{3} For example, use the formulas \(V = s^3\) and \(A = 6s^2\) to find the volume and surface area of a cube with sides of length s = 1/2. (CCSS: 6.EE.2c)
^{4} For example, apply the distributive property to the expression 3 (2 + x) to produce the equivalent expression 6 + 3x; apply the distributive property to the expression 24x + 18y to produce the equivalent expression 6 (4x + 3y); apply properties of operations to y + y + y to produce the equivalent expression 3y. (CCSS: 6.EE.3)
^{5} i.e., when the two expressions name the same number regardless of which value is substituted into them). For example, the expressions y + y + y and 3y are equivalent because they name the same number regardless of which number y stands for. Reason about and solve onevariable equations and inequalities. (CCSS: 6.EE.4)
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Concepts and skills students master:


Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{6} For example, in a problem involving motion at constant speed, list and graph ordered pairs of distances and times, and write the equation d = 65t to represent the relationship between distance and time. (CCSS: 6.EE.9)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 2. Patterns, Functions, and Algebraic Structures
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Concepts and skills students master:


Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{1} For example, given the rule "add 3" and the starting number 0, and given the rule "add 6" and the starting number 0, generate terms and the resulting sequences, and observe that the terms in one sequence are twice the corresponding terms in the other sequence. (CCSS: 5.OA.3)
^{2} such as the pattern created when saving $10 a month
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Fourth Grade
Standard: 2. Patterns, Functions, and Algebraic Structures
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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{1} For example, given the rule "Add 3" and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way. (CCSS: 4.OA.5)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: High School
Standard: 3. Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability
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Concepts and skills students master:


Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{1} including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies.
^{2} rate of change. (CCSS: SID.7)
^{3} constant term. (CCSS: SID.7)
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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{4} e.g., using simulation. (CCSS: SIC.2)
For example, a model says a spinning coin falls heads up with probability 0.5. Would a result of 5 tails in a row cause you to question the model? (CCSS: SIC.2)
Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{5} the set of outcomes. (CCSS: SCP.1)
^{6} "or," "and," "not". (CCSS: SCP.1)
^{7} For example, collect data from a random sample of students in your school on their favorite subject among math, science, and English. Estimate the probability that a randomly selected student from your school will favor science given that the student is in tenth grade. Do the same for other subjects and compare the results. (CCSS: SCP.4)
^{8} For example, compare the chance of having lung cancer if you are a smoker with the chance of being a smoker if you have lung cancer. (CCSS: SCP.5)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 3. Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability
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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{1} Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. (CCSS: 8.SP.2)
^{2} For example, in a linear model for a biology experiment, interpret a slope of 1.5 cm/hr as meaning that an additional hour of sunlight each day is associated with an additional 1.5 cm in mature plant height. (CCSS: 8.SP.3)
^{3} For example, collect data from students in your class on whether or not they have a curfew on school nights and whether or not they have assigned chores at home. Is there evidence that those who have a curfew also tend to have chores? (CCSS: 8.SP.4)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Seventh Grade
Standard: 3. Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability
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Concepts and skills students master:


Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{1} For example, estimate the mean word length in a book by randomly sampling words from the book; predict the winner of a school election based on randomly sampled survey data. Gauge how far off the estimate or prediction might be. (CCSS: 7.SP.2)
^{2} For example, the mean height of players on the basketball team is 10 cm greater than the mean height of players on the soccer team, about twice the variability (mean absolute deviation) on either team; on a dot plot, the separation between the two distributions of heights is noticeable. (CCSS: 7.SP.3)
^{3} For example, decide whether the words in a chapter of a seventhgrade science book are generally longer than the words in a chapter of a fourthgrade science book. (CCSS: 7.SP.4)
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Concepts and skills students master:


Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{4} Larger numbers indicate greater likelihood. A probability near 0 indicates an unlikely event, a probability around 1/2 indicates an event that is neither unlikely nor likely, and a probability near 1 indicates a likely event. (CCSS: 7.SP.5)
^{5} For example, when rolling a number cube 600 times, predict that a 3 or 6 would be rolled roughly 200 times, but probably not exactly 200 times. (CCSS: 7.SP.6)
^{6} For example, if a student is selected at random from a class, find the probability that Jane will be selected and the probability that a girl will be selected. (CCSS: 7.SP.7a)
^{7} For example, find the approximate probability that a spinning penny will land heads up or that a tossed paper cup will land openend down. Do the outcomes for the spinning penny appear to be equally likely based on the observed frequencies? (CCSS: 7.SP.7b)
^{8} e.g., "rolling double sixes" (CCSS: 7.SP.8b)
^{9} For example, use random digits as a simulation tool to approximate the answer to the question: If 40% of donors have type A blood, what is the probability that it will take at least 4 donors to find one with type A blood? (CCSS: 7.SP.8c)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Sixth Grade
Standard: 3. Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability
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Concepts and skills students master:


Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{1} For example, "How old am I?" is not a statistical question, but "How old are the students in my school?" is a statistical question because one anticipates variability in students' ages. (CCSS: 6.SP.1)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 3. Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability
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Concepts and skills students master:


Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{1} For example, given different measurements of liquid in identical beakers, find the amount of liquid each beaker would contain if the total amount in all the beakers were redistributed equally. (CCSS: 5.MD.2)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Fourth Grade
Standard: 3. Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability
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Concepts and skills students master:


Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{1} For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection. (CCSS: 4.MD.4)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Third Grade
Standard: 3. Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability
Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

Concepts and skills students master:


Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{1} For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent 5 pets. (CCSS: 3.MD.3)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Second Grade
Standard: 3. Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability
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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: First Grade
Standard: 3. Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability
Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: High School
Standard: 4. Shape, Dimension, and Geometric Relationships
Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

Concepts and skills students master:


Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{9} Theorems include: a line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two proportionally, and conversely; the Pythagorean Theorem proved using triangle similarity. (CCSS: GSRT.4)
^{10} Include the relationship between central, inscribed, and circumscribed angles; inscribed angles on a diameter are right angles; the radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent where the radius intersects the circle. (CCSS: GC.2)
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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{11} For example, prove or disprove that a figure defined by four given points in the coordinate plane is a rectangle; prove or disprove that the point (1, \(\sqrt{3}\)) lies on the circle centered at the origin and containing the point (0, 2). (CCSS: GGPE.4)
^{12} e.g., find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point. (CCSS: GGPE.5)
Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{13} Use dissection arguments, Cavalieri's principle, and informal limit arguments. (CCSS: GGMD.1)
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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{14} e.g., modeling a tree trunk or a human torso as a cylinder. (CCSS: GMG.1)
^{15} e.g., persons per square mile, BTUs per cubic foot. (CCSS: GMG.2)
^{16} e.g., designing an object or structure to satisfy physical constraints or minimize cost; working with typographic grid systems based on ratios. (CCSS: GMG.3)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 4. Shape, Dimension, and Geometric Relationships
Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{1} Lines are taken to lines, and line segments to line segments of the same length. (CCSS: 8.G.1a)
Angles are taken to angles of the same measure. (CCSS: 8.G.1b)
Parallel lines are taken to parallel lines. (CCSS: 8.G.1c)
^{2} For example, arrange three copies of the same triangle so that the sum of the three angles appears to form a line, and give an argument in terms of transversals why this is so. (CCSS: 8.G.5)
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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Seventh Grade
Standard: 4. Shape, Dimension, and Geometric Relationships
Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

Concepts and skills students master:


Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

Concepts and skills students master:


Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Sixth Grade
Standard: 4. Shape, Dimension, and Geometric Relationships
Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 4. Shape, Dimension, and Geometric Relationships
Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{1} A cube with side length 1 unit, called a "unit cube," is said to have "one cubic unit" of volume, and can be used to measure volume. (CCSS: 5.MD.3a)
A solid figure which can be packed without gaps or overlaps using n unit cubes is said to have a volume of n cubic units. (CCSS: 5.MD.3b)
Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{2} Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines (the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point in the plane located by using an ordered pair of numbers, called its coordinates. (CCSS: 5.G.1)
Understand that the first number indicates how far to travel from the origin in the direction of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the direction of the second axis, with the convention that the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., xaxis and xcoordinate, yaxis and ycoordinate). (CCSS: 5.G.1)
^{3} For example, all rectangles have four right angles and squares are rectangles, so all squares have four right angles. (CCSS: 5.G.3)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Fourth Grade
Standard: 4. Shape, Dimension, and Geometric Relationships
Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{1} For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), ... (CCSS: 4.MD.1)
^{2} For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor. (CCSS: 4.MD.3)
^{3} An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a "onedegree angle," and can be used to measure angles. (CCSS: 4.MD.5a)
An angle that turns through n onedegree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees. (CCSS: 4.MD.5b)
^{4} When an angle is decomposed into nonoverlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. (CCSS: 4.MD.7)
^{5} e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure. (CCSS: 4.MD.7)
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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{6} Based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles. (CCSS: 4.G.2)
^{7} as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. (CCSS: 4.G.3)
Identify linesymmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry. (CCSS: 4.G.3)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Third Grade
Standard: 4. Shape, Dimension, and Geometric Relationships
Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{1} e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others. (CCSS: 3.G.1)
^{2} e.g., having four sides. (CCSS: 3.G.1)
^{3} e.g., quadrilaterals. (CCSS: 3.G.1)
^{4} For example, partition a shape into 4 parts with equal area, and describe the area of each part as 1/4 of the area of the shape. (CCSS: 3.G.2)
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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{5} A square with side length 1 unit, called "a unit square," is said to have "one square unit" of area, and can be used to measure area. (CCSS: 3.MD.5a)
A plane figure which can be covered without gaps or overlaps by n unit squares is said to have an area of n square units. (CCSS: 3.MD.5b)
^{6} A square with side length 1 unit, called "a unit square," is said to have "one square unit" of area, and can be used to measure area. (CCSS: 3.MD.5a)
Measure areas by counting unit squares (square cm, square m, square in, square ft, and improvised units). (CCSS: 3.MD.6)
Find the area of a rectangle with wholenumber side lengths by tiling it, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths. (CCSS: 3.MD.7a)
Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles with whole number side lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems, and represent wholenumber products as rectangular areas in mathematical reasoning. (CCSS: 3.MD.7b)
^{7} Find areas of rectilinear figures by decomposing them into nonoverlapping rectangles and adding the areas of the nonoverlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems. (CCSS: 3.MD.7d)
Use tiling to show in a concrete case that the area of a rectangle with wholenumber side lengths a and b + c is the sum of a × b and a × c. Use area models to represent the distributive property in mathematical reasoning. (CCSS: 3.MD.7c)
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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{8} e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram. (CCSS: 3.MD.1)
^{9} e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem. (CCSS: 3.MD.2)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Second Grade
Standard: 4. Shape, Dimension, and Geometric Relationships
Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{1} e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers). (CCSS: 2.MD.5)
^{2} with equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1, 2, ... (CCSS: 2.MD.6)
^{3} Example: If you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents do you have? (CCSS: 2.MD.6)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: First Grade
Standard: 4. Shape, Dimension, and Geometric Relationships
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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{1} e.g., triangles are closed and threesided. (CCSS: 1.G.1)
^{2} e.g., color, orientation, overall size. (CCSS: 1.G.1)
^{3} rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, halfcircles, and quartercircles. (CCSS: 1.G.2)
^{4} cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders. (CCSS: 1.G.2)
^{5} Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares. (CCSS: 1.G.3)
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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{6} By laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of samesize length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps. (CCSS: 1.MD.2)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Kindergarten
Standard: 4. Shape, Dimension, and Geometric Relationships
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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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^{1} lying in a plane, "flat". (CCSS: K.G.3)
^{2} "solid". (CCSS: K.G.3)
^{3} e.g., number of sides and vertices/"corners". (CCSS: K.G.4)
^{4} e.g., having sides of equal length. (CCSS: K.G.4)
^{5} e.g., sticks and clay balls. (CCSS: K.G.5)
^{6} For example, "Can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle?" (CCSS: K.G.6)
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^{7} For example, directly compare the heights of two children and describe one child as taller/shorter. (CCSS: K.MD.2)
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations: Preschool
Standard: 4. Shape, Dimension, and Geometric Relationships
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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) 

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Evidence Outcomes  21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies 
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