New Colorado P-12 Academic Standards

Current Display Filter: Reading, Writing and Communicating - All - by Specific Prepared Graduate Competency - (Remove PGC Filter)

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Twelfth Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Standard English conventions effectively communicate to targeted audiences and purposes

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Follow the conventions of standard English to write varied, strong, correct, complete sentences
  2. Deliberately manipulate the conventions of standard English for stylistic effect appropriate to the needs of a particular audience and purpose
  3. Seek and use an appropriate style guide to govern conventions for a particular audience and purpose

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What makes the final draft of a document look professional and polished?
  2. How does structure affect clarity?
  3. What are benefits to using software tools? What are the disadvantages to such software?
  4. When is it appropriate to include visuals in a presentation?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Writers produce polished documents for publication.
  2. Building fluency with software tools will increase application in writing.
  3. Today's world caters to visual information, graphics and photo images.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers create visual images when writing and think about visual tools that can be embedded in presentations.
  2. Writers self-edit to become more aware of their writing and the key points they want to make.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eleventh Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Writing demands ongoing revisions and refinements for grammar, usage, mechanics, and clarity

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.11-12.1)
    • Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested. (CCSS: L.11-12.1a)
    • Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, Garner's Modern American Usage) as needed. (CCSS: L.11-12.1b)
    • Use a variety of phrases (absolute, appositive) accurately and purposefully to improve writing
    • Use idioms correctly, particularly prepositions that follow verbs
    • Ensure that a verb agrees with its subject in complex constructions (such as inverted subject/verb order, indefinite pronoun as subject, intervening phrases or clauses)
    • Use a style guide to follow the conventions of Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA) format
    • Use resources (print and electronic) and feedback to edit and enhance writing for purpose and audience
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.11-12.2)
    • Observe hyphenation conventions. (CCSS: L.11-12.2a)
    • Spell correctly. (CCSS: L.11-12.2b)
  3. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in expectations 1-2 above.) (CCSS: W.11-12.4)
  4. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (CCSS: W.11-12.5)
  5. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information. (CCSS: W.11-12.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does word choice affect the message a writer conveys?
  2. How does a writer plan his/her work for a specific audience?
  3. Why is it important to know and properly use the English conventions of writing?
  4. What are both a benefit and a caution to using grammar and spell-checker tools?
  5. How does reviewing previous drafts and revisions improve a writer's work?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Writing personal narratives in college essays and scholarship applications is necessary to be considered as a candidate.
  2. Using the dictionary, spell-checker, and other tools can teach as well as correct or edit writing.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers save copies of their revisions to see how their writing has progressed.
  2. Writers use proper English conventions when writing.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Tenth Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Grammar, language usage, mechanics, and clarity are the basis of ongoing refinements and revisions within the writing process

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.9-10.1)
    • Use parallel structure. (CCSS: L.9-10.1a)
    • Distinguish between the active and passive voice, and write in the active voice
    • Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations. (CCSS: L.9-10.1b)
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.9-10.2)
    • Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses. (CCSS: L.9-10.2a)
    • Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation. (CCSS: L.9-10.2b)
  3. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. (CCSS: L.9-10.3)
    • Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook, Turabian's Manual for Writers) appropriate for the discipline and writing type. (CCSS: L.9-10.3a)
  4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in expectations 1-2 above.) (CCSS: W.9-10.4)
  5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (CCSS: W.9-10.5)
  6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology's capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically. (CCSS: W.9-10.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What would writing look like if there were no punctuation?
  2. Why would it be difficult to read texts that do not have correct punctuation?
  3. How does voice make writing more interesting?
  4. Why is correct grammar important to the reader?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Book publishers edit texts before they are sent to printing.
  2. Professional editing tools help publishers edit work to meet rapid deadlines.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers create texts that are coherent to the reader.
  2. Writers revise texts multiple times before a final draft is published.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Ninth Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Writing for grammar, usage, mechanics, and clarity requires ongoing refinements and revisions

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.9-10.2)
    • Identify comma splices and fused sentences in writing and revise to eliminate them
    • Distinguish between phrases and clauses and use this knowledge to write varied, strong, correct, complete sentences
    • Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation. (CCSS: L.9-10.2b)
    • Spell correctly. (CCSS: L.9-10.2c)
  2. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in expectations 1 and 2 above.) (CCSS: W.9-10.4)
  3. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (CCSS: W.9-10.5)
  4. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology's capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically. (CCSS: W.9-10.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What message does an author give a reader if there are flaws and errors in grammar and punctuation?
  2. What are the benefits of using computer-based tools for grammar support? What are the cautions of using these tools?
  3. What is meant by an obscure or oblique reference?
  4. Why should the writer beware when using a reference that may be obscure?
  5. When a writer has text at an adequate phase, is it necessary to keep tweaking it? Why or why not?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Learning to rewrite with improvements creates a thoughtful, thorough writer.
  2. Artificial intelligence software is sophisticated enough to correct and complete unfinished sentences.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers review work for clarity and the match it has to their audience.
  2. Good writers are always highly valued.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Editing writing for grammar, usage, mechanics, and clarity is an essential trait of a well-written document

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.8.1)
    • Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences. (CCSS: L.8.1a)
    • Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice. (CCSS: L.8.1b)
    • Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood. (CCSS: L.8.1c)
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood. (CCSS: L.8.1d)
    • Use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs correctly in sentences
    • Combine sentences with subordinate conjunctions
    • Use subject-verb agreement with intervening phrases and clauses
    • Identify main and subordinate clauses and use that knowledge to write varied, strong, correct, complete sentences
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.8.2)
    • Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break. (CCSS: L.8.2a)
    • Format and punctuate dialogue correctly
    • Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission. (CCSS: L.8.2b)
    • Spell correctly. (CCSS: L.8.2c)
  3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (CCSS: L.8.3)
    • Use verbs in the active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects (e.g., emphasizing the actor or the action; expressing uncertainty or describing a state contrary to fact). (CCSS: L.8.3a)
  4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (CCSS: W.8.4)
  5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (CCSS: W.8.5)
  6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others. (CCSS: W.8.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does the use of correct grammar, usage, and mechanics add clarity to writing?
  2. How can various tools help a writer edit work?
  3. What are some common punctuation errors? How can writers avoid these challenges in the future?
  4. When do writers use software tools in their writing?
  5. When is it beneficial to use the thesaurus?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Writing guides are used as an essential tool for making a piece of writing professional.
  2. Job interviews often include the evaluation of correct grammar and the request for a writing sample.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers often use the tools from editing software programs, but don't want to become dependent on them so they will try to figure it out on their own and then double-check their work using the tools.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Seventh Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Editing writing for proper grammar, usage, mechanics, and clarity improves written work

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.7.2)
    • Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives (e.g., It was a fascinating, enjoyable movie but not He wore an old[,] green shirt). (CCSS: L.7.2a)
    • Spell correctly. (CCSS: L.7.2b)
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.7.1)
    • Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences. (CCSS: L.7.1a)
    • Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas. (CCSS: L.7.1b)
    • Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers. (CCSS: L.7.1c)
  3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (CCSS: L.7.3)
  4. Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy. (CCSS: L.7.3a)Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (CCSS: W.7.4)
  5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (CCSS.W.7.5)
    • Use punctuation correctly (commas and parentheses to offset parenthetical elements; colons to introduce a list; and hyphens)
    • Write and punctuate compound and complex sentences correctly
    • Vary sentences using prepositional phrases, ensuring that subjects and verbs agree in the presence of intervening phrases
    • Use pronoun-antecedent agreement including indefinite pronouns
    • Write with consistent verb tense across paragraphs
    • Use adjectives and adverbs correctly in sentences to describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs
    • Combine sentences with coordinate conjunctions
    • Improve word choice by using a variety of references, such as a thesaurus
  6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources. (CCSS: W.7.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do transition words create fluency in writing?
  2. What are other purposes of transitions?
  3. How can use of vocabulary help or hinder a piece of writing?
  4. When does a writer know he/she has done enough editing?
  5. How does editing make someone a better writer?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Student council campaign speeches, posters, campaign buttons, and jingles take time and editing to build.
  2. The grit required in improving punctuation and word choice distinguishes an effective communicator from one who just uses ink.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers can connect prior knowledge with new information to help solve problems.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Sixth Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Specific editing for grammar, usage, mechanics, and clarity gives writing its precision and legitimacy

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.6.1)
    • Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive). (CCSS: L.6.1a)
    • Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves). (CCSS: L.6.1b)
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person. (CCSS: L.6.1c)
    • Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents). (CCSS: L.6.1d)
    • Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others' writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language. (CCSS: L.6.1e)
    • Identify fragments and run-ons and revise sentences to eliminate them
    • Use coordinating conjunctions in compound sentences
    • Maintain consistent verb tense within paragraph.
    • Choose adverbs to describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.6.2)
    • Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements. (CCSS: L.6.2a)
    • Spell correctly. (CCSS: L.6.2b)
  3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (CCSS: L.6.3)
    • Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style. (CCSS: L.6.3a)
    • Maintain consistency in style and tone. (CCSS: L.6.3b)
  4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in grade level expectations 1 and 2 above.) (CCSS: W.6.4)
  5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (CCSS: W.6.5)
  6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting. (CCSS: W.6.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. If piece of writing has many errors or is difficult to read, what are readers' thoughts about that piece?
  2. How can writers create strong sentence fluency in their work?
  3. What author uses language and organization that makes his/her work enjoyable to read?
  4. How do writers monitor their spelling if spell-check is not available?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Written language differs from spoken language in terms of vocabulary, structure, and context.
  2. Learning to edit writing is important because it demonstrates the work to others who may be reading it (Locate examples of public places where there is poor grammar or poor spelling. Write a letter to a local business asking for support for a class project. Use electronic resources to edit and revise your project.)

Nature Of:

  1. Writers pay attention to the way sentences start, which creates more sentence fluency in their writing.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Conventions apply consistently when evaluating written texts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.5.2)
    • Use punctuation to separate items in a series. (CCSS: L.5.2a)
    • Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence. (CCSS: L.5.2b)
    • Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It's true, isn't it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?). (CCSS: L.5.2c)
    • Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works. (CCSS: L.5.2d)
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed. (CCSS: L.5.2e)
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.5.1)
    • Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences. (CCSS: L.5.1a)
    • Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses. (CCSS: L.5.1b)
    • Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions. (CCSS: L.5.1c)
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense. (CCSS: L.5.1d)
    • Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor). (CCSS: L.5.1e)
  3. Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style. (CCSS: L.5.1f)Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (CCSS: W.5.4)
  4. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (CCSS: W.5.5)
  5. With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of two pages in a single sitting. (CCSS: W.5.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do writers prepare their writing for different audiences?
  2. How would writing for our first grade buddies be different than the writing that you would do to convince or persuade our principal to let us have music day?
  3. How do writers organize their thinking to include the audience they are addressing?
  4. Which graphic organizer that we have used may assist you with your planning?
  5. What guidelines from our paragraph writing were the most helpful to you as you began to construct your paragraphs?

Relevance & Application:

  1. People can use an electronic thesaurus to enrich vocabulary in text. (Write letters to "writing pals" at a school in another community. Design a thank-you note for the custodian or parent volunteers.)
  2. Written language differs from spoken language in terms of vocabulary, structure, and context.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers are thoughtful of the language they use in their writing.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fourth Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Correct sentence formation, grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling are applied to make the meaning clear to the reader

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (CCSS: W.4.4)
  2. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (CCSS: W.4.5)
  3. With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting. (CCSS: W.4.6)
  4. Use correct format (indenting paragraphs, parts of a letter, poem, etc.) for intended purpose
  5. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (CCSS: L.4.3)
    • Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely. (CCSS: L.4.3a)
    • Choose punctuation for effect. (CCSS: L.4.3b)
    • Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion). (CCSS: L.4.3c)
  6. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.4.1)
    • Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why). (CCSS: L.4.1a)
    • Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses. (CCSS: L.4.1b)
    • Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions. (CCSS: L.4.1c)
    • Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag). (CCSS: L.4.1d)
    • Form and use prepositional phrases. (CCSS: L.4.1e)
    • Use compound subjects (Tom and Pat went to the store) and compound verbs (Harry thought and worried about the things he said to Jane) to create sentence fluency in writing
    • Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons. (CCSS: L.4.1f)
    • Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their). (CCSS: L.4.1g)
  7. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.4.2)
    • Use correct capitalization. (CCSS: L.4.2a)
    • Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text. (CCSS: L.4.2b)
    • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence. (CCSS: L.4.2c)
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed. (CCSS: L.4.2d)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How is reading actually speech that has been written down?
  2. How do writers use technology to support the writing process?
  3. How would you find meaning in a piece of writing that used no punctuation?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Writers organize reports differently than literary writing.
  2. Writers use writing to explore ideas.
  3. Proper usage of verbs is important in speaking and writing.
  4. Friends and family can sometimes only truly understand your feelings when you use accurate punctuation and spelling.
  5. Writers use a range of resources including technology as revising and editing tools.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers can edit their own work.
  2. Writers use quotation marks in their writing to show dialogue in their work.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Third Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Correct grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling are used when writing

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. (CCSS: W.3.4)
  2. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (CCSS: W.3.5)
  3. With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others. (CCSS: W.3.6)
  4. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (CCSS: L.3.3)
    • Choose words and phrases for effect. (CCSS: L.3.3a)
    • Recognize and observe differences between the conventions of spoken and written standard English. (CCSS: L.3.3b)
  5. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.3.1)
    • Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences. (CCSS: L.3.1a)
    • Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns. (CCSS: L.3.1b)
    • Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood). (CCSS: L.3.1c)
    • Form and use regular and irregular verbs. (CCSS: L.3.1d)
    • Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses. (CCSS: L.3.1e)
    • Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement. (CCSS: L.3.1f)
    • Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified. (CCSS: L.3.1g)
    • Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions. (CCSS: L.3.1h)
    • Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences. (CCSS: L.3.1i)
    • Vary sentence beginnings, and use long and short sentences to create sentence fluency in longer texts
  6. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.3.2)
    • Capitalize appropriate words in titles. (CCSS: L.3.2a)
    • Use commas in addresses. (CCSS: L.3.2b)
    • Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue. (CCSS: L.3.2c)
    • Form and use possessives. (CCSS: L.3.2d)
    • Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness). (CCSS: L.3.2e)
    • Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words. (CCSS: L.3.2f)
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings. (CCSS: L.3.2g)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does punctuation help people understand what they read and write?
  2. What resources can be used to help spell words correctly?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Desktop tools, spell-check and grammar-check are used to edit written work.
  2. Newspapers, newsletter and Internet web pages rely on precise and descriptive writing to inform or entertain.

Nature Of:

  1. Written symbols show both meaning and expression.
  2. Writers know that words can have identical pronunciations but differ in spelling and meaning (you/ewe, eye/I).

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Second Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Appropriate spelling, capitalization, grammar, and punctuation are used and applied when writing

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.2.1)
    • Use collective nouns (e.g., group). (CCSS: L.2.1a)
    • Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish). (CCSS: L.2.1b)
    • Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves). (CCSS: L.2.1c)
    • Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told). (CCSS: L.2.1d)
    • Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified. (CCSS: L.2.1e)
    • Apply accurate subject-verb agreement while writing
    • Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy). (CCSS: L.2.1f)
    • Vary sentence beginning
    • Spell high-frequency words correctly
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.2.2)
    • Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names. (CCSS: L.2.2a)
    • Use commas in greetings and closings of letters. (CCSS: L.2.2b)
    • Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives. (CCSS: L.2.2c)
    • Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage ? badge; boy ? boil). (CCSS: L.2.2d)
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings. (CCSS: L.2.2e)
  3. With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing. (CCSS: W.2.5)
  4. With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (CCSS: W.2.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How can spelling change the meaning of a word?
  2. How can punctuation change the meaning of a sentence?
  3. What is the primary use of the apostrophe in contractions?
  4. Why is punctuation used for many different purposes in writing?
  5. Why are uppercase/capital letters important in writing?

Relevance & Application:

  1. The meaning of a sentence can be changed by changing the order of the words in the sentence. (He can run. Can he run?)
  2. Knowing when to capitalize letters will help readers understand writing.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers know that endings change words.
  2. Writers revise their writing to choose better words to communicate what they want to say.
  3. Writers use proper punctuation in their writing.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: First Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Appropriate spelling, conventions, and grammar are applied when writing

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.1.1)
    • Print all upper- and lowercase letters. (CCSS: L.1.1a)
    • Use common, proper, and possessive nouns. (CCSS: L.1.1b)
    • Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop). (CCSS: L.1.1c)
    • Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their, anyone, everything). (CCSS: L.1.1d)
    • Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home). (CCSS: L.1.1e)
    • Use frequently occurring adjectives. (CCSS: L.1.1f)
    • Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so, because). (CCSS: L.1.1g)
    • Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives). (CCSS: L.1.1h)
    • Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward). (CCSS: L.1.1i)
    • Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts. (CCSS: L.1.1j)
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.1.2)
    • Write complete simple sentences.
    • Capitalize dates and names of people. (CCSS: L.1.2a)
    • Use end punctuation for sentences. (CCSS: L.1.2b)
    • Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series. (CCSS: L.1.2c)
    • Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words. (CCSS: L.1.2d)
    • Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions. (CCSS: L.1.2e)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do phonemes (speech sounds) map to graphemes (letters and letter clusters) to form words?
  2. How do punctuation marks show expression and pauses in writing?
  3. How do capital letters show importance?
  4. How can a writer show excitement in a sentence? (exclamation mark)

Relevance & Application:

  1. Question marks are often used in children's games.
  2. Phonetic patterns are the bases of nursery rhymes and children's songs.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers know how to spell many words.
  2. Writers hold their pencil correctly.
  3. Writers use capital letters at the beginning of sentences.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Kindergarten
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Appropriate mechanics and conventions are used to create simple texts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.K.1)
    • Print many upper- and lowercase letters. (CCSS: L.K.1a)
    • Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs. (CCSS: L.K.1b)
    • Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes). (CCSS: L.K.1c)
    • Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how). (CCSS: L.K.1d)
    • Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with). (CCSS: L.K.1e)
    • Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities. (CCSS: L.K.1f)
    • Use proper spacing between words
    • Write left to right and top to bottom
    • Use appropriate pencil grip
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.K.2)
    • Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I. (CCSS: L.K.2a)
    • Recognize and name end punctuation. (CCSS: L.K.2b)
    • Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes). (CCSS: L.K.2c)
    • Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships. (CCSS: L.K.2d)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does a sentence begin?
  2. How does a sentence end?
  3. How does a writer show that one sentence ends and another begins?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Phonetically spelled words usually are seen in favorite children's books.
  2. Video software has the advantage of audio and animation to emphasize the utility of punctuation and capital letters.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers use upper- and lowercase letters when appropriate.
  2. Writers use proper spacing between words.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Preschool
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Letters are formed with accuracy

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Begin to develop proper pencil grip when drawing or writing
  2. Write and recognize letters in own name

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How is the first letter of someone's name different from the other letters?
  2. Why do writers use an uppercase letter at the beginning of names?
  3. How do writers indicate the end of a sentence?
  4. How do readers discriminate between symbols, digits, and letters?

Relevance & Application:

  1. English is written from left to right; Hebrew is written right to left.
  2. English words consist of letters; Hieroglyphic's consists of symbols.
  3. Spaces appear between the words in order to make meaning.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers know all of the letters in their name and can write it by themselves.
  2. Writers remember to leave a space between their first name and their last name because they are two different words.
  3. Writers can identify upper- and lowercase letters.