New Colorado P-12 Academic Standards

Current Display Filter: Reading, Writing and Communicating - All - by Specific Prepared Graduate Competency - (Remove PGC Filter)

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Twelfth Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Logical arguments distinguish facts from opinions; and evidence defines reasoned judgment

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Synthesize information to support a logical argument
  2. Distinguish between evidence and inferences
  3. Identify false premises or assumptions
  4. Analyze rhetorical devices used in own and others' appeals
  5. Summarize ideas that include alternate views, rich detail, well-developed paragraphs, and logical argumentation

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do authors measure the quality of their argument along the way?
  2. What criteria do authors use to evaluate the quality of their reasoning? (clarity, validity, logic, relevance, completeness, depth, breadth)
  3. When have you last heard a "pitch" based predominantly using assumption?
  4. When can a scattered argument ever be successful?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Editors at news agencies synthesize alternate views and vast appeals in order to make concise weekly editorials.
  2. Expensive purchases such as a car, home or college education are usually made after a first impressions and false evidence have been eliminated.
  3. Rhetorical devices are usually practiced and refined in most professions and jobs in order to advance reasoned activity.
  4. Recognizing the difference between primary and secondary sources and analyzing primary sources applying our own knowledge and perspective can lead to deeper understanding.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers are consumers of information.
  2. Researchers are generators of information.
  3. Investigative thinkers careful attend to language and the influence of bias or false premises

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Sixth Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Monitoring the thinking of self and others is a disciplined way to maintain awareness

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Determine strengths and weaknesses of their thinking and thinking of others by using criteria including relevance, clarity, accuracy, fairness, significance, depth, breadth, logic, and precision
  2. Take control over their thinking to determine when thinking should be questioned and when it should be accepted. (intellectual autonomy)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why is it important to understand what others are thinking?
  2. Describe a situation where you had a different perspective than one of your friends?
  3. Why do presenters have to be clear about their thinking for others to understand what they are trying to convey?
  4. If speakers want to share information, how do they determine what may be relevant to the conversation?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Students who monitor their thinking are able to select from various strategies to improve comprehension.
  2. When researchers listen to others, they increase their own learning.
  3. When people evaluate and assess their own thinking (metacognition), they gain clarity in their understanding.
  4. Use online tools to monitor the writings of professionals in areas of personal interest.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers monitor what they are thinking so that they can be fair and unbiased.
  2. Researchers' own clarity of thought brings clear communication in speaking and writing.
  3. Presenters exercise persistence with new ideas even though it feels frustrating or difficult at first.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Identifying and evaluating concepts and ideas have implications and consequences

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (CCSS: W.5.9)
    • Accurately explain the implications of concepts they use
    • Identify irrelevant ideas and use concepts and ideas in ways relevant to their purpose
    • Analyze concepts and draw distinctions between related but different concepts
    • Demonstrate use of language that is careful and precise while holding others to the same standards
    • Distinguish clearly and precisely the difference between an implication and consequence
    • Distinguish probable from improbable implications and consequences
    • Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact]"). (CCSS: W.5.9a)
    • Apply grade 5 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., "Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point[s]"). (CCSS: W.5.9b)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do people decide on and use credible, relevant, appropriate, accurate, and valid information?
  2. How do people explain the implications and concepts used by themselves and others, including authors?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Concepts are used daily to make sense of the world. Lack of clarity with concepts perpetuates misunderstanding.
  2. Accurate in-depth comprehension relies on the ability to analyze and differentiate concepts.
  3. Messages communicated through reading and writing have implications that require exploration.
  4. Use electronic productivity tools to illustrate and convey concepts and your own ideas.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers know all reasoning is expressed through and shaped by concepts, and lead somewhere or have implications and consequences.
  2. Researchers understand the language used in documents is important.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fourth Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Identifying implications, concepts, and ideas enriches reasoning skills

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Consider negative as well as positive implications of their own thinking or behavior, or others thinking or behavior
  2. State, elaborate, and give an example of a concept (for example, state, elaborate, and give an example of friendship or conflict)
  3. Identify the key concepts and ideas they and others use
  4. Ask primary questions of clarity, significance, relevance, accuracy, depth, and breadth

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What are the implications or what might happen if someone takes action about an issue?
  2. What are the consequences of the action?
  3. How do students identify key concepts and ideas?
  4. How do students know they clearly understand the concepts and topics?
  5. What problems may arise if students use only their own thinking in their work?
  6. How do students include the perspectives, thinking, or opinions of others as they learn?
  7. How does elaborating help others understand a concept with more clarity?
  8. What strategy do readers use to help them identify the key concepts or main ideas of a text?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Concepts and ideas may reflect prior knowledge and experiences.
  2. Presenters are able to clarify what is useful when speaking or writing.
  3. When asked to share ideas, presenters must be precise and share key points so that others will be able to follow their information.
  4. People must ask questions of themselves and of others for the purpose of quality understanding and reasoning.
  5. People who put their thinking or the thinking of a favorite author or researcher aside to entertain other thinking use a fair-minded way to gain understanding.
  6. Good communicators acknowledge that further reading or research can increase their depth of understanding.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers understand that clear concepts and ideas must be supported with facts.
  2. All reasoning is expressed through and shaped by concepts, and leads somewhere or has implications and consequences.
  3. Good communicators are able to state the issue or concept, elaborate on it, and have an example to clearly express their thinking.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: First Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Purpose, information, and questions about an issue are essential steps in early research

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of "how-to" books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions). (CCSS: W.1.7)
    • Identify a clear and significant purpose for research (Is my purpose for researching frogs clear and is it important to understanding more about mammals?)
  2. With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (CCSS: W.1.8)
    • Evaluate information for clarity and accuracy

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What is the purpose? Is the purpose clear? Is the purpose important in relation to the question at issue?
  2. What is the question at issue? Is the question important and related to the purpose?
  3. Is the information being gathering important to the question at issue and purpose?
  4. Is the information free from error?
  5. How do students improve their thinking?
  6. Why is it important to be clear about the reason for studying a certain topic?
  7. When people are learning new information, why is it important that the data is correct?
  8. What might happen if people use incorrect or unsupported information?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Before readers begin to read, they ask themselves purposeful questions. (What is the purpose for learning how to read? Am I clear on the purpose for reading? Is reading important?)
  2. Zoologists know that new knowledge about animals and the discovery of new species require them to ask good questions every day.

Nature Of:

  1. People who reason understand that reasoning has a purpose, is based on information, and is an attempt to figure something out.
  2. Curiosity and thinking help people to discover and understand things that puzzle them.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Kindergarten
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Quality of thinking depends on the quality of questions

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Ask primary questions of clarity, significance, relevance, and accuracy to improve quality of thinking
  2. State, elaborate, and exemplify the concept of fair-mindedness

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does this relate to the problem?
  2. How does that bear on the question?
  3. How does that help to resolve the issue?
  4. Is this the most important question to consider?
  5. How could check on that?
  6. How could we find out if that is true?
  7. How could verify or test that?
  8. Could the source illustrate what he/she means?
  9. What does it mean to be fair-minded?

Relevance & Application:

  1. People ask clarifying questions to think better.
  2. People think about clear ideas by asking questions.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers understand that for thinking to improve, it is necessary to ask critical questions.
  2. All reasoning has a purpose based on information and an attempt to figure something out.