New Colorado P-12 Academic Standards

Current Display Filter: Reading, Writing and Communicating - All - by Specific Prepared Graduate Competency - (Remove PGC Filter)

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eleventh Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Evaluating quality reasoning includes the value of intellectual character such as humility, empathy, and confidence

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Analyze the purpose, question at issue, information, points of view, implications and consequences, inferences, assumptions, and concepts inherent in thinking
  2. Assess strengths and weaknesses of thinking and thinking of others by using criteria including relevance, clarity, accuracy, fairness, significance, depth, breadth, logic, and precision
  3. Determine the extent to which they entered empathetically into competing points of view, exercised confidence in reason, recognized the limits of their knowledge on the topic (intellectual humility), explored alternative approaches to solving or addressing complex problems (intellectual flexibility), were open to constructive critique (intellectual open-mindedness)
  4. Evaluate the reasoning of self and others for quality, strong-sense thinking

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does one analyze the logic of thinking?
  2. How does one evaluate the logic of thinking?
  3. What does it look like to see intellectual humility or intellectual arrogance?
  4. What types of complexities make it difficult for one to take apart his/her own thinking?
  5. What obstacles interfere with quality reasoning?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Intellectual open-mindedness challenges rules and traditions and can instigate tension in a society.
  2. The absence of logic and precision has steep consequences in medical, safety and judicial settings.
  3. Growing up is a lifelong event and most often is noticed when faced with differing information, points of view, assumptions, and inferences.
  4. Sociologists, anthropologists and historians make a living studying influence, bias, and patterns of quality thinking.
  5. Reading and participating in social networking sites such as blogs give practice in applying humility, empathy and confidence through the engagement with an authentic audience.

Nature Of:

  1. Evaluating quality logic and mental flexibility is a trait that becomes a habit which improves the thinking of others.
  2. Making connections and bringing fresh clarity to an intellectual assumption brings into mental focus the actual problem or a possible solution.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Common fallacies and errors occur in reasoning

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Analyze the purpose, question at issue, information, points of view, implications and consequences, inferences, assumptions, and concepts inherent in thinking
  2. Determine strengths and weaknesses of their thinking and thinking of others by using criteria including relevance, clarity, accuracy, fairness, significance, depth, breadth, logic, and precision
  3. Identify common reasoning fallacies in print and non-printed sources
  4. Differentiate between valid and faulty generalizations

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do you identify common reasoning fallacies in your thinking and others'?
  2. Is a generalization usually acceptable in research reporting?
  3. When students are reading text, how do they monitor clarity and bias about what others are saying?
  4. What are common fallacies found in print and non-print?
  5. In a global conversation, how do assumptions and "common" reasoned thinking in research work?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Valid and reliable information is a signature of acceptable research.
  2. Researchers monitor the sources that are selected and check the credibility of the author or the source before it is used in their work.
  3. Online information can be published by anyone. Use rigorous evaluation processes to determine accuracy.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers acknowledge that there is faulty reasoning in communication, which keeps them aware of what they must do to make sure their work is clear and accurate.
  2. Researchers understand that making good decisions, based on careful reasoning, are important to the quality of life.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Quality reasoning requires asking questions and analyzing and evaluating viewpoints

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Ask primary questions of clarity, significance, relevance, accuracy, precision, logic, fairness, depth, and breadth
  2. Acknowledge the need to treat all viewpoints fair-mindedly
  3. Recognize what they know and don't know (intellectual humility)
  4. Recognize the value of using the reasoning process to foster desirable outcomes (intellectual confidence in reason)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Could the author have been more specific? Could the author have given more details? Could the author have been more exact?
  2. Does the author's logic follow from the evidence?
  3. Did the author considered various points of view open-mindedly?
  4. Did the author determine the quality of his/her thinking and the thinking of others?
  5. What method can an author use to show he/she is treating all viewpoints fairly?
  6. When people are discussing topics with others, how do they indicate that they do not know the answer?
  7. How do people monitor their thinking for clarity and careful reasoning?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Asking questions of themselves and of others helps people reach quality understanding and reasoning.
  2. Putting individual thinking or the thinking of a favorite author/researcher aside to entertain other thinking is a fair-minded way to gain understanding.
  3. Acknowledging that further reading/research can increase my depth of understanding.
  4. Acknowledging that analyzing and assessing individual's thinking for quality reasoning fosters desirable outcomes.

Nature Of:

  1. Questions enable readers and writers to clarify information.
  2. Understanding when people know and when they do not know is a skill that good readers use when they monitor their thinking and reasoning.
  3. Throughout each day, people must pose quality questions to think about what they are reading or situations they are facing.
  4. All reasoning is expressed through and shaped by concepts, and leads somewhere or has implications and consequences.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Second Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Questions are essential to analyze and evaluate the quality of thinking

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations). (CCSS: W.2.7)
    • Ask primary questions of depth and breadth
    • Acknowledge the need to treat all viewpoints fair-mindedly

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Consider this reading from the point of view of someone new. What would be your opinion?
  2. What makes the situation of this reading possibly more complicated?
  3. What does it mean to be fair-minded?
  4. Why is it important to include other people's perspectives?
  5. How can readers be sure that the information is fair and unbiased? What do you say when it is not fair information

Relevance & Application:

  1. Professors share the skills of policemen and evaluate all of those with a points of view, asking questions, and determining a conclusion using the best evidence to support reasoning.
  2. Examples of asking good questions for real problems include a group of students wanting to start a book contest, and probing the difficulties and complexities of a book contest.

Nature Of:

  1. People who reason understand reasoning is done from a point of view, based on data, information, and evidence, and contains inferences by which they draw conclusions and give meaning to data.
  2. Researchers understand that for thinking to improve, it is necessary to ask critical questions.
  3. People who reason know thinking has potential strengths and weaknesses.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Preschool
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Relevant information is different from non-relevant information

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Understand the difference between a question and a statement
  2. Begin to identify key features of reality versus fantasy in stories, pictures, and events
  3. Identify information that is relevant

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What is a question?
  2. What is a statement?
  3. What is real and what is make-believe?
  4. Which character do you think is the most important one in our story? Why do you think that?
  5. When someone asks a question, what do others in the group do?
  6. When someone shares information with another person, does it improve learning?
  7. How do readers know that a story is real?
  8. How do readers know if the information is relevant?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Good readers know the difference between sharing something they know (a statement) and asking about something they wonder about (a question).
  2. Good readers notice the features of imaginative text versus nonfiction.
  3. In a class discussion, students are able to decide if information about cats is relevant (related) to insects.
  4. Good readers know the difference between what is real and what is make-believe in the stories they read.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers know that the world is full of information.
  2. The question lays out the problem or issue and guides thinking.
  3. Researchers understand that for thinking to improve, it is necessary to seek out alternative ways to solve problems.