New Colorado P-12 Academic Standards

Current Display Filter: Reading, Writing and Communicating - All - by Specific Prepared Graduate Competency - (Remove PGC Filter)

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Twelfth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Interpreting and evaluating complex informational texts require the understanding of rhetoric, critical reading, and analysis skills

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness or beauty of the text. (CCSS: RI.11-12.6)
  2. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem. (CCSS: RI.11-12.7)
  3. Use reading and note-taking strategies (outlining, mapping systems, skimming, scanning, key word search) to organize information and make connections within and across informational texts
  4. Use semantic cues, signal words, and transitions to identify text structures (such as critique, proposition/support, inductive/deductive) and to summarize central ideas and supporting details
  5. Obtain and use information from text and text features (index, bold or italicized text, subheadings, graphics) to answer questions, perform specific tasks, or identify and solve problems
  6. Explain and interpret the visual components supporting the text (maps, complex tables and diagrams, and transitional devices, such as use of white space)
  7. By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RI.11-12.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do different genres, formats, and text features used in informational text help readers understand the author's purpose?
  2. What gives the written word its power?
  3. How do rhetorical devices and logic impact the reader?
  4. What is the role of logic in informational texts?
  5. What are rhetorical devices that can destroy a valuable piece of substantive text?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Interpretation of text, supported by citing evidence, fosters reading skills and coherent thinking, speaking, and writing, which are priority skills for the workplace and postsecondary settings.
  2. Civil engineers interpret legislative and legal terms as they construct bridges, roads, and reservoirs.

Nature Of:

  1. Critical readers ask questions in their mind as they read.
  2. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 11-12. (CCSS: RST.11-12.1-10)
  3. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 11-12. (CCSS: RH.11-12.1-10)

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Tenth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. The development of new ideas and concepts within informational and persuasive manuscripts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (CCSS: RI.9-10.1)
  2. Provide a response to text that expresses an insight (such as an author's perspective or the nature of conflict) or use text-based information to solve a problem not identified in the text (for example, use information from a variety of sources to provide a response to text that expresses an insight)
  3. Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person's life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account. (CCSS: RI.9-10.7)
  4. Compare the development of an idea or concept in multiple texts supported by text-based evidence
  5. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper). (CCSS: RI.9-10.4)
  6. Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington's Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt's Four Freedoms speech, King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail"), including how they address related themes and concepts. CCSS: RI.9-10.9)
  7. By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RI.9-10.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do readers organize thoughts as they read? Articulate how these thoughts are stored for future use (for example, connecting clues from Lincoln's early life to his leadership and honesty during his presidency).
  2. What is the difference between old information and old knowledge?
  3. What does it take to synthesize two different but noncompeting sources of information?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Literature captures the lives, culture and heritage of the historical past.
  2. Making the connections to the past allows people to evaluate current events with more clarity (for example, looking at the laws of slavery, electing the first black U.S. president, and understanding the irony of the fact that slaves were used to construct the White House).
  3. As people get older, they become more conscious of their beliefs and how they influence others.
  4. Online social/learning networks such as blogs and wikis allows students to communicate globally.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers are able to fluently discuss topics that have both American and world views.
  2. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 9-10. (CCSS: RST.9-10.1-10)
  3. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 9-10. (CCSS: RH. 9-10.1-10)

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Quality comprehension and interpretation of informational and persuasive texts demand monitoring and self-assessment

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (CCSS: RI.8.1)
    • Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text. (CCSS: RI.8.2)
    • Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories). (CCSS: RI.8.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts. (CCSS: RI.8.4)
    • Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept. (CCSS: RI.8.5)
    • Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints. (CCSS: RI.8.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea. (CCSS: RI.8.7)
    • Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced. (CCSS: RI.8.8)
    • Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation. (CCSS: RI.8.9)
    • Interpret and explain informational texts of personal interest
  4. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RI.8.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why is this author qualified to write this informational text?
  2. How do visuals convey information?
  3. How can bias influence the reader?
  4. Which texts do you connect with and why?
  5. What elements make a text more attractive to some readers than others?
  6. Why is it important to critique an author's credentials?

Relevance & Application:

  1. While reading science and social studies texts, analyze details for relevance and accuracy.
  2. When reading for information, people think about the credibility of the author to be sure that the information is current and accurate.
  3. Voters need to understand both the gist of a proposition and the details.
  4. The exponentially growing access to information of all types on the Internet make it essential for students to practice and hone skills for evaluating online information and learn how to efficiently and effectively locate reliable information sources.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers understand there may be multiple points of view on the same topic.
  2. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RST.6-8.1-10)
  3. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RH.6-8.1-10)

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Seventh Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Informational and persuasive texts are summarized and evaluated

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (CCSS: RI.7.1)
    • Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text. (CCSS: RI.7.2)
    • Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events). (CCSS: RI.7.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone. (CCSS: RI.7.4)
    • Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas. (CCSS: RI.7.5)
    • Interpret a variety of graphical representations and connect them to information in the text
    • Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others. (CCSS: RI.7.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each medium's portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words). (CCSS: RI.7.7)
    • Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims. (CCSS: RI.7.8)
    • Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts. (CCSS: RI.7.9)
    • Organize and synthesize information from multiple sources, determining the relevance of information
  4. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (CCSS: RI.7.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does the author use language to convey his/her viewpoint? (For example, pro-slavery-the words used show a bias toward owning slaves.)
  2. How can readers distinguish between facts and an author's opinion? Why does this matter?
  3. How are multiple sources valuable when you are learning new information?

Relevance & Application:

  1. The massive amount of information on the Internet requires readers to distinguish accurate from inaccurate information.
  2. Using multiple sources is important to gather accurate information.
  3. When consumers are purchasing a product, they will be bombarded with information that must be sorted for accuracy, clarity, and organization to help guide their decisions.
  4. Sound, graphics, and multimedia combine with text to influence perception.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers think critically when they read to separate fact from opinion.
  2. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RST.6-8.1-10)
  3. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RH.6-8.1-10)

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Sixth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Organizing structure to understand and analyze factual information

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (CCSS: RI.6.1)
    • Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. (CCSS: RI.6.2)
    • Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes). (CCSS: RI.6.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings. (CCSS: RI.6.4)
    • Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas. (CCSS: RI.6.5)
    • Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text. (CCSS: RI.6.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue. (CCSS: RI.6.7)
    • Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not. (CCSS: RI.6.8)
    • Compare and contrast one author's presentation of events with that of another (e.g., a memoir written by and a biography on the same person). (CCSS: RI.6.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (CCSS: RI.6.10)
  5. Generate questions, make/confirm/adjust predictions, make inferences, and draw conclusions based on text structures
  6. Use information from text and text features (such as timeline, diagram, captions) to answer questions or perform specific tasks

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do text structures affect our understanding of various texts?
  2. How do authors use text features to highlight information?
  3. How are conclusions different from evaluations?
  4. How can an author's perspective inform readers or persuade the readers to change their thinking?

Relevance & Application:

  1. All events have a cause and effect (when a sports team loses playoff games, when an adult can't read, when students don't study for a test).
  2. Drawing conclusions supports thinking when making decisions (completing a science experiment, deciding what kind of car to buy, choosing a college to attend).
  3. Readers need to be aware of persuasive techniques that can influence their decisions (magazine ads about cosmetics, smoking, and alcohol).
  4. Organizational structures of online text are non-linear and very different from print text, requiring understanding and skill to achieve comprehension.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers use text features as a source for finding information.
  2. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RST.6-8.1-10)
  3. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RH.6-8.1-10)

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Ideas found in a variety of informational texts need to be compared and understood

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (CCSS: RI.5.1)
    • Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text. (CCSS: RI.5.2)
    • Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text. (CCSS: RI.5.3)
    • Distinguish between fact and opinion, providing support for judgments made
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area. (CCSS: RI.5.4)
    • Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts. (CCSS: RI.5.5)
    • Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent. (CCSS: RI.5.6)
    • Use informational text features (such as bold type, headings, graphic organizers, numbering schemes, glossary) and text structures to organize or categorize information, to answer questions, or to perform specific tasks
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently. (CCSS: RI.5.7)
    • Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s). (CCSS: RI.5.8)
    • Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. (CCSS: RI.5.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4-5 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RI.5.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How and when do readers adjust reading strategies to better understand different types of text?
  2. What text features are most helpful and why? How do text features help readers access information quickly?
  3. Why do authors use specific text features to convey a message?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Text features communicate key concepts.
  2. Skimming and scanning are important elements of learning and gathering information.
  3. The information age requires readers to process lots of information quickly and to determine importance.
  4. Online reading makes it challenging for students to learn to focus and follow hyperlinked texts only as appropriate to the information seeking task

Nature Of:

  1. Readers automatically retrieve information while they skim and scan text.
  2. Readers use text features before, during, and after reading to increase connections and comprehension.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fourth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Comprehension and fluency matter when reading informational and persuasive texts in a fluent way

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (CCSS: RI.4.1)
    • Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text. (CCSS: RI.4.2)
    • Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. (CCSS: RI.4.3)
    • Skim materials to develop a general overview of content
    • Scan to locate specific information or to perform a specific task (finding a phone number, locating a definition in a glossary, identifying a specific phrase in a passage)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area. (CCSS: RI.4.4)
    • Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text. (CCSS: RI.4.5)
    • Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided. (CCSS: RI.4.6)
    • Identify common organizational structures (paragraphs, topic sentences, concluding sentences) and explain how they aid comprehension
    • Use text features (bold type, headings, visuals, captions, glossary) to organize or categorize information
    • Identify conclusions
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. (CCSS: RI.4.7)
    • Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text. (CCSS: RI.4.8)
    • Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. (CCSS: RI.4.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4-5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (CCSS: RI.4.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What does informational text tell readers about themselves, others, and the world?
  2. How do text features help readers gain information that they need?
  3. How do readers know if the text is informing them or trying to persuade them?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Announcers read stylized print with appropriate inflection.
  2. Readers interpret the intended message in various genres (such as fables, billboards, Web pages, poetry, and posters).
  3. Online comprehension strategies differ from those used to comprehend printed text due to non-linear design and the addition of multimedia clues which can greatly distract or aid in understanding.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers read for enjoyment and information.
  2. Readers make connections from what they are reading to previous selections within text or other sources.
  3. When readers analyze well-written paragraphs, they support their writing skills.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Third Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Comprehension strategies are necessary when reading informational or persuasive text

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. (CCSS: RI.3.1)
    • Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea. (CCSS: RI.3.2)
    • Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect. (CCSS: RI.3.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area. (CCSS: RI.3.4)
    • Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently. (CCSS: RI.3.5)
    • Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text. (CCSS: RI.3.6)
    • Use semantic cues and signal words (because, although) to identify cause/effect and compare/contrast relationships
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur). (CCSS: RI.3.7)
    • Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence). (CCSS: RI.3.8)
    • Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic. (CCSS: RI.3.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 2-3 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RI.3.10)
    • Adjust reading rate according to type of text and purpose for reading.

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do readers use different reading strategies to better understand a variety of texts (science, social studies, nonfiction)?
  2. Looking at our list of comprehension strategies, which one supported your thinking the most as you read this genre today (e.g., I used monitoring because this text had many details and technical terms.)?
  3. How does cause and effect work in people's lives?
  4. When does punctuation change the entire meaning of a sentence?

Relevance & Application:

  1. The skills used in reading comprehension transfers to readers' ability to understand and interpret events.
  2. Throughout life, people will be asked to retell or recount events that have occurred.
  3. Signal words are used to assist readers in describing key events.
  4. Summarizing is a life skill that will be used every day as people read, express opinions about a topic, or retell an event.
  5. Readers must organize details from informational text as they read (using a graphic organizer, two-column notes, outline, etc.).
  6. Reading and preparing for commenting on classroom blogs gives students practice in locating information to support opinions make predictions and draw conclusions.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers read for enjoyment and information.
  2. Reading helps people understand themselves and make connections to the world.
  3. Readers use comprehension strategies automatically without thinking about using them.