New Colorado P-12 Academic Standards

Current Display Filter: Reading, Writing and Communicating - All - by Specific Prepared Graduate Competency - (Remove PGC Filter)

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Twelfth Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Independent research designs articulate and defend information, conclusions, and solutions that address specific contexts and purposes

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Define and narrow a topic for self-designed research for a variety of purposes and audiences
  2. Critique research questions of self and others for bias and underlying assumptions
  3. Critique and defend sources and information based on credibility, relevance and appropriateness relative to context and purpose
  4. Design and defend a set of diverse research strategies (e.g. cross-referencing bibliographies, creating annotated bibliographies, researching source credentials) to identify information appropriate to the needs of a research question, hypothesis, or thesis statement
  5. Critique and defend evidence relative to its use to address a particular context and purpose
  6. Determine and use the appropriate style guide to govern format and documentation of quotations, paraphrases, and other information from a range of research sources

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do researchers identify a significant problem or issue to study?
  2. If an initial inquiry proves fruitless, how can they reformulate the research question to address an alternative topic, issue, or problem? (intellectual flexibility)
  3. To what extent can researchers compare and contrast their research conclusions/results with alternative conclusions/results? (breadth)
  4. How do researchers check for clarity and credentials of the contributing authors that they selected for their research?
  5. How do researchers check their resources and evaluate evidence to ensure that they were relevant and significant to the research question or purpose?
  6. How do researchers check their conclusion(s) for significance and accuracy?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Technology tools such as meters, lenses, data capture tools, and documented research archives accelerate all searches.
  2. Fact-checking tools help confirm the accuracy of self-designed research such as small business interests.
  3. Inventors in sports medicine speak to the breadth of issues related to a research topic but not necessarily addressed within the original research.
  4. Students use factual information to support their ideas to go to a certain college or the military.
  5. Data organization is a skill used in medical testing.
  6. Environmental leaders review research results to share with others. Reviewing research for personal use will support many personal and professional choices.
  7. Using the Internet to locate and converse with experts in the field can enhance your understanding and research.
  8. Following up on citations found in research articles online and in libraries helps us validate accuracy of information and deepen our understanding.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers must be flexible with their thinking so new learning can take place.
  2. People are consumers of information.
  3. People are generators of information.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eleventh Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Self-designed research provides insightful information, conclusions, and possible solutions

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (CCSS: W.11-12.7)
  2. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (CCSS: W.11-12.8)
  3. Evaluate and revise research questions for precision and clarity
  4. Evaluate quality, accuracy, and completeness of information and the bias, credibility and reliability of the sources
  5. Document sources of quotations, paraphrases, and other information, using a style sheet, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA)
  6. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (CCSS: W.11-12.9)
    • Apply grades 11-12 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics"). (CCSS: W.11-12.9a)
    • Apply grades 11-12 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses]"). (CCSS: W.11-12.9b)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do you know if an online source is credible?
  2. How can subjective viewpoints be used in research?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Representing and accurately citing data, conclusions, the opinions of others can be compromised if the researcher does not recognize his/her bias on the topic.
  2. Accurately documenting sources of information can prevent accusations of plagiarism which can sometimes lead to legal action.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers follow the reasoning that supports an argument or explanation and can assess whether the evidence provided is relevant and sufficient
  2. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 9-10. (CCSS: WHST.9-10.7-9)

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Ninth Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Informational materials, including electronic sources, need to be collected, evaluated, and analyzed for accuracy, relevance, and effectiveness for answering research questions

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Integrate information from different sources to research and complete a project
  2. Integrate information from different sources to form conclusions about an author's assumptions, biases, credibility, cultural and social perspectives, or world views
  3. Judge the usefulness of information based on relevance to purpose, source, objectivity, copyright date, cultural and world perspective (such as editorials), and support the decision
  4. Examine materials to determine appropriate primary and secondary sources to use for investigating a question, topic, or issue (e.g., library databases, print and electronic encyclopedia and other reference materials, pamphlets, book excerpts, online and print newspaper and magazine articles, letters to an editor, digital forums, oral records, research summaries, scientific and trade journals)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. When a researcher is "reflecting" on information to use in a project, what is actually happening in the thought pattern?
  2. When are multiple resources NOT HELPFUL?
  3. How do researchers plan for such challenges as little to no primary information?
  4. What was your most unusual source for a personal research project? What resource was the least useful and why?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Information from a variety sources is needed to conduct accurate, clear, and coherent research.
  2. Looking at multiple perspectives expands people's thinking and adds clarity to their own thoughts and words.
  3. Using information from many sources helps broaden ability to locate and use information.
  4. In the global society, multiple perspectives and a wide range of information are within easy reach and importantly applicable. Global perspectives can be obtained through participating in online social media networks.
  5. Global perspectives can be obtained through participating in online social media networks.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers are attentive to bias in resources and monitor their own writing and speaking for biases to assess and maintain their own credibility.
  2. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 9-10. (CCSS: WHST.9-10.7-9)

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Quality reasoning relies on supporting evidence in media

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Take a position on an issue and support it using quality reasoning
  2. Analyze own or others' appeal for purpose, question at issue, information, points of view, implications and consequences, assumptions, and concepts
  3. Evaluate own or others' appeal for relevance, clarity, accuracy, fairness, significance, depth, breadth, logic, and precision
  4. Use appropriate media to demonstrate reasoning and explain decisions in the creative process

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does someone determine the logic of a position on an issue and support it with quality reasoning and assessment?
  2. How might someone use media to demonstrate multiple points of view?
  3. How does media play a role in fairness?
  4. How is quality reasoning enhanced when multiple mediums are used?
  5. Why is media used to portray different reasons about issues?
  6. What is an example of a time when you looked at two sides of an issue?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Comprehension strategies should be applied to resources used in supporting a position.
  2. Daily, people are confronted with issues and questions that require quality reasoning.
  3. Careful practice and review of reasoning to determine if it is faulty or reliable can help people as they make important decisions (such as voting or buying an expensive item).
  4. The ability to prove reasoning is helpful when explaining an opinion to someone else.

Nature Of:

  1. Quality reasoning enhances the creation of media.
  2. Clearly articulating thinking and reasoning is essential to communication.
  3. Researchers who listen to others in a fair-minded way increase their skills in reasoning.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Seventh Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Answering a research question logically begins with obtaining and analyzing information from a variety of sources

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation. (CCSS: W.7.7)
    • Identify a topic for research, developing the central idea or focus
    • Formulate open-ended research questions and identify potential sources of information (such as reference materials, electronic media), differentiating between primary and secondary source materials
  2. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (CCSS: W.7.8)
    • Use organizational features of electronic text (bulletin boards, search engines, databases) to locate information
    • Evaluate accuracy and usefulness of information, and the credibility of the sources used
    • Collect, interpret, and analyze relevant information; identify direct quotes for use in the report and information to summarize or paraphrase that will support the thesis or research question
  3. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (CCSS: W.7.9)
    • Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history"). (CCSS: W.7.9a)
    • Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g. "Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims"). (CCSS: W.7.9b)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do people use technology for accessing and recording information?
  2. What is the significance in using primary sources?
  3. When is a primary source unhelpful?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Inventors and scientist who create new technologies often use an inquiry-based process for understanding, drawing conclusions, and creating new knowledge.
  2. Writers follow ethical, legal, and copyright laws.
  3. Writers expand their competencies in using online or web-based resources to complement other written resources.
  4. Data organization is a skill that people use daily at home and at work.
  5. People who remain current with new resources successfully support their learning and application of new information.
  6. Use graphical organizers and other online tools to organize and analyze data.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers are always summarizing and synthesizing information.
  2. Intelligent researchers are both consumers and generators of information.
  3. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: WHST.6-8.7-9)

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Sixth Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Individual and group research projects require obtaining information on a topic from a variety of sources and organizing it for presentation

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate. (CCSS: W.6.7)
    • Identify a topic for research, developing the central idea or focus and potential research question(s)
  2. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources. (CCSS: W.6.8)
    • Use a range of print and nonprint sources (atlases, data bases, reference materials, online and electronic resources, interviews, direct observation) to locate information to answer research questions
    • Locate specific information within resources using indexes, tables of contents, electronic search key words, etc.
  3. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (CCSS: W.6.9)
    • Follow established criteria for evaluating accuracy, validity, and usefulness of information
    • Select and organize information, evidence, details, or quotations that support the central idea or focus
    • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics"). (CCSS: W.6.8a)
    • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not"). (CCSS: W.6.8b)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What graphs, charts, photographs, and other access features will support my information?
  2. With all of the resources available to me, which one would I not want to be without? Why?
  3. What tools meet my needs as a researcher when working with data?
  4. How are these tools used by professionals in many fields?
  5. How do you hold yourself and others accountable for sharing the work load?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Using organizational strategies allows researchers to conduct quality research.
  2. Completing a research project in a group enables multiple perspectives.
  3. Being able to compromise and negotiate are important tools in life.
  4. Selecting the best methods for research will save time and help students become more proficient in writing and presentations.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers make sure research projects are organized in a cohesive manner.
  2. Working as an individual, small group or large group requires intellectual autonomy, intellectual integrity, intellectual humility, and so forth.
  3. Researchers must choose the right kind of question at issue or a purpose worth researching to conduct quality work.
  4. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: WHST.6-8.7-9)

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Second Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Reference materials help us locate information and answer questions

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Identify a variety of resources and the information they might contain (dictionary, trade book, library databases, Internet web page)
  2. Identify a specific question and gather information for purposeful investigation and inquiry
  3. Use text features to locate, interpret, and use information (table of contents, illustrations, diagrams, headings, bold type)
  4. Use a variety of multimedia sources to answer questions of interest
  5. Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (CCSS: W.2.8)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do people know information is relevant, significant, and accurate?
  2. How do people know which resource will provide the most accurate information?

Relevance & Application:

  1. There are many ways people look up and research unknown information. (Use a dictionary to find the meaning of unfamiliar words. Use an encyclopedia to look up information. Use the Internet to conduct research. Use interviews to gather information.)

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers use information to support their thinking.
  2. Researchers use a variety of reference materials to support learning new information.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: First Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. A variety of resources leads to locating information and answering questions of interest

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write or dictate questions for inquiry that arise during instruction
  2. With peers, use a variety of resources (direct observation, trade books, texts read aloud or viewed) to answer questions of interest through guided inquiry
  3. Use text features (titles, illustrations, headings, bold type) to locate, interpret, and use information

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What resources can students use to answer the question?
  2. Why is it important to ask clear questions?
  3. What are other uses of text features?
  4. Why do authors use text features in their writing?
  5. Which text feature do you find most useful?
  6. How is using multiple resources helpful to readers or writers?
  7. Why does society have such a variety of reading materials?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Text features can help good readers when they are scanning material.
  2. Good readers pose questions while they read.
  3. Related questions occur when looking up your pet or selecting a new one.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers analyze critical questions and locate resources to answer the questions.
  2. Readers use text features to help them before they begin reading.
  3. Readers ask questions while they read to stay focused and help clarify thinking.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Kindergarten
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. A variety of locations must be explored to find information that answers questions of interest

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Dictate questions that arise during instruction
  2. Use a variety of resources (such as direct observation, trade books, texts read aloud or viewed) to answer questions of interest through guided inquiry

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do people decide on a question to share and ask?
  2. How do people check questions to see if they are relevant and important to learning?
  3. If the author visited today, what would you ask?
  4. What resources can people use to help find possible answers to their question(s)?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Books are just one tool for finding answers.
  2. Life is full of questions and people need to know the avenues for answering them.
  3. Good readers ask questions while they are reading.
  4. Students use many different types of books to learn.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers ask questions when they look at the pictures and words in their books.
  2. Researchers continually find resources to support, challenge, or change thinking.
  3. Questions are where learning begins.
  4. People redirect their thinking when the first ideas they have don't make sense.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Identify purpose, information and question an issue

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them). (CCSS: W.K.7)
    • Identify a clear purpose for research or inquiry (If the class is learning about trees, is my need to know more about pets related?)
    • Identify a significant question they are trying to answer, problem they are trying to solve, or issue they are trying to resolve
    • Gather relevant information and check various information sources for accuracy (In a class discussion focused on butterflies, students ask questions related to a butterfly and the life cycle.)
  2. With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (CCSS: W.K.8)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What is the purpose? Is the purpose clear?
  2. What is the question at issue? Is the question important?
  3. Why is it important to solve problems?
  4. What was a time when you wanted to solve a problem but you didn't know how?
  5. Who helped you solve the problem? How did you feel when it was over?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Rumors relayed by a friend may not be true.
  2. Stories about a topic not related to the issue are interesting but not always important at the time.

Nature Of:

  1. All reasoning has a purpose based on information and is an attempt to figure something out.
  2. Researchers know that for thinking to improve, it is necessary to ask critical questions.