New Colorado P-12 Academic Standards

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Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eleventh Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Knowledge of language, including syntax and grammar, influence the understanding of literary, persuasive, and informational texts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. (CCSS: L.11-12.3)
    • Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte's Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading. (CCSS: L.11-12.3a)
  2. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11-12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (CCSS: L.11-12.4)
    • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.11-12.4a)
    • Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable). (CCSS: L.11-12.4b)
    • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage. (CCSS: L.11-12.4c)
    • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). (CCSS: L.11-12.4d)
  3. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS: L.11-12.5)
    • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text. (CCSS: L.11-12.5a)
    • Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations. (CCSS: L.11-12.5b)
  4. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. (CCSS: L.11-12.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does having a sound knowledge of English Language aid in text comprehension of difficult text?
  2. Describe how content specific academic language is beneficial to the development of comprehension in content areas, i.e. science, social studies, and health and PE, specific vocabulary.
  3. What is the significance of being able to correctly use patterns of word changes to bring meaning to text?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Doctoral students are required to write a thesis with a dissertation. Having a sound knowledge of language, and how language functions, is a necessity to this type of work.

Nature Of:

  1. Sound readers are able to immerse into the English Language to derive and infer meaning from difficult text.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Tenth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Context, parts of speech, grammar, and word choice influence the understanding of literary, persuasive, and informational texts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9-10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (CCSS: L.9-10.4)
    • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.9-10.4a)
    • Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy). (CCSS: L.9-10.4b)
    • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology. (CCSS: L.9-10.4c)
    • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). (CCSS: L.9-10.4d)
  2. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS: L.9-10.5)
    • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text. (CCSS: L.9-10.5a)
    • Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations. (CCSS: L.9-10.5b)
  3. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. (CCSS: L.9-10.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. In the English Language, why is important to be able to distinguish between multiple word meanings?
  2. How does text context assist in figuring out the meaning of unknown words when reading difficult text?
  3. Describe the importance of being able to find the meaning of unknown words in multiple ways?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Consumers need to be able to read the difficult language in technical manuals (such as rebuilding an engine, installing a new heating system, OSHA manuals, and corporate policy manuals).
  2. The scientific process uses parallel methodology when constructing a scientific experiment: problem/hypothesis = introduction, experiment = main idea, supporting details = data, and conclusion = conclusion.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers look for word patterns when they read. Making connections to meaning is automatic.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Context, grammar, and word choice influence the understanding of literary, persuasive, and informational texts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases based on grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (CCSS: L.8.4)
    • Select and employ strategies to persist when encountering unknown or ambiguous words or difficult passages
    • Explain how authors use language to influence audience perceptions of events, people, and ideas
    • Explain how word choice and sentence structure are used to achieve specific effects (such as tone, voice, and mood)
    • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.8.4a)
    • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., precede, recede, secede). (CCSS: L.8.4b)
    • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. (CCSS: L.8.4c)
    • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). (CCSS: L.8.4d)
  2. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS: L.8.5)
    • Interpret figures of speech (e.g. verbal irony, puns) in context. (CCSS: L.8.5a)
    • Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words. (CCSS: L.8.5b)
    • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., bullheaded, willful, firm, persistent, resolute). (CCSS: L.8.5c)
  3. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. (CCSS: L.8.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How has language changed through the centuries? Is the English language still changing? If so, how does that happen?
  2. How can grammar and texting cause some conflicting points of view?
  3. How can use of dialect or jargon bias a listener? How are words misinterpreted?
  4. How does the expression "don't judge a book by its cover" apply to eighth-graders?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Columnists and blog writers have a distinctive voice, tone, and mood.
  2. Using online dictionaries and built in dictionary tools contained within subscription databases can enhance student ability to increase their vocabulary and understanding of online reading

Nature Of:

  1. People use different types of language depending on their setting and their audience.
  2. People adjust language according to the purpose of their message: In some situations, they may need more formal language to establish credibility.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Sixth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Word meanings are determined by how they are designed and how they are used in context

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (CCSS: L.6.4)
    • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.6.4a)
    • Make connections back to previous sentences and ideas to resolve problems in comprehension
    • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible). (CCSS: L.6.4b)
    • Employ synonyms or antonyms gleaned from a passage to provide an approximate meaning of a word
    • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. (CCSS: L.6.4c)
    • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). (CCSS: L.6.4d)
  2. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS: L.6.5)
    • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context. (CCSS: L.6.5a)
    • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category) to better understand each of the words. (CCSS: L.6.5b)
    • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, unwasteful, thrifty). (CCSS: L.6.5c)
  3. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. (CCSS: L.6.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does knowledge of roots and affixes help determine the meaning of unknown words?
  2. Where can readers find evidence of affixes and how they are used to convey meaning?
  3. How does the larger context help readers understand confusing words or ideas?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Readers apply knowledge of roots and affixes to help determine the meanings of unfamiliar words. (Doctors' and nurses read medical books and journals, scientists read research reports and scientific studies.)
  2. Researchers use electronic resources to find information on unfamiliar topics or to find out more information.
  3. Hypertext and quick-search features in Web sites and online databases can help one quickly obtain meaning.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers transfer knowledge of roots and affixes when reading and writing unfamiliar words.
  2. Readers make intentional bridging inferences and connections between sections to resolve problems in comprehension.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Knowledge of morphology and word relationships matters when reading

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context. (CCSS: RF.5.3a)
  2. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (CCSS: RF.5.4)
    • Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: RF.5.4a)
    • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis). (CCSS: RF.5.4b)
    • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. (CCSS: RF.5.3c)
  3. Read and identify the meaning of words with sophisticated prefixes and suffixes
  4. Apply knowledge of derivational suffixes that change the part of speech of the base word (such as active, activity)
  5. Infer meaning of words using structural analysis, context, and knowledge of multiple meanings
  6. Read and identify the meaning of roots and related word families in which the pronunciation of the root does not change
  7. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. (CCSS: RF.5.4)
    • Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. (CCSS: RF.5.4a)
    • Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. (CCSS: RF.5.4b)
    • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. (CCSS: RF.5.4c)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does a readers' knowledge of morphology help them effectively decode and understand multisyllabic words?
  2. Select one basic root word and find multiple affixes that extend the meaning of this root.
  3. How did the English language end up with so many "borrowed" roots from Latin and Greek?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Using knowledge of morphology supports the ability to decode and comprehend the meanings of multisyllabic words.
  2. Writing using multisyllabic words enhances the quality of the work.
  3. Decoding multisyllabic words allows readers to read fluently across the content areas.
  4. Exposure to affixes and their meanings increases vocabulary both in writing and speaking.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers use their understanding of morphology and word relationships to read texts with multisyllabic words.
  2. Readers make the connections that words have prefixes and suffixes that change the meaning.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fourth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Knowledge of complex orthography (spelling patterns), morphology (word meanings), and word relationships to decode (read) multisyllabic words contributes to better reading skills

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. (CCSS: RF.4.3)
    • Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context. (CCSS: RF.4.3a)
  2. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. (CCSS: RF.4.4)
    • Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. (CCSS: RF.4.4a)
    • Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. (CCSS: RF.4.4b)
    • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. (CCSS: RF.4.4c)
  3. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (CCSS: L.4.4)
    • Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.4.4a)
    • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph). (CCSS: L.4.4b)
    • Read and understand words with common prefixes (un-, re-, dis-) and derivational suffixes (-ful, -ly, -ness)
    • Read and understand words that change spelling to show past tense: write/wrote, catch/caught, teach/taught
    • Read multisyllabic words with and without inflectional and derivational suffixes
    • Infer meaning of words using explanations offered within a text
    • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. (CCSS: L.4.4c)
  4. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS: L.4.5)
    • Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context. (CCSS: L.4.5a)
    • Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs. (CCSS: L.4.5b)
    • Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms). (CCSS: L.4.5c)
  5. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation). (CCSS: L.4.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How can analyzing word structures help readers understand word meanings?
  2. How do prefixes (un-, re-) and suffixes (-ness, -ful) change the meaning of a word (meaning, meaningful)?
  3. Why do root words change their spelling when suffixes are added?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Changing accent changes the meaning of words (CONtest, conTEST).
  2. Voice recording software and tools a iPods provide students opportunity to listen to and record multisyllabic words and text
  3. Readers can create new words by adding prefixes and suffixes (such as wood, wooden).
  4. The spelling of multisyllabic root words can change when suffixes are added (transfer, transferrable).

Nature Of:

  1. The ability to notice accent is essential for successful communication.
  2. Readers use phonemes, graphemes (letters), and morphemes (suffixes, prefixes) in an alphabetic language.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Third Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Increasing word understanding, word use, and word relationships increases vocabulary

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. (CCSS: RF.3.3)
    • Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and derivational suffixes. (CCSS: RF.3.3a)
    • Decode words with common Latin suffixes. (CCSS: RF.3.3b)
    • Decode multisyllable words. (CCSS: RF.3.3c)
    • Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. (CCSS: RF.3.3d)
  2. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. (CCSS: RF.3.4)
    • Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. (CCSS.3.4a)
    • Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. (CCSS.3.4b)
    • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. (CCSS.3.4c)
  3. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (CCSS: L.3.4)
    • Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.3.4a)
    • Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known affix is added to a known word (e.g., agreeable/disagreeable, comfortable/uncomfortable, care/careless, heat/preheat). (CCSS: L.3.4b)
    • Use knowledge of word relationships to identify antonyms or synonyms to clarify meaning.
    • Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., company, companion). (CCSS: L.3.4c)
    • Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. (CCSS: L.3.4d)
  4. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS: L.3.5)
    • Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context (e.g., take steps). (CCSS: L.3.5a)
    • Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe people who are friendly or helpful). (CCSS: L.3.5b)
    • Distinguish shades of meaning among related words that describe states of mind or degrees of certainty (e.g., knew, believed, suspected, heard, wondered). (CCSS: L.3.5c)
  5. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships (e.g., After dinner that night we went looking for them). (CCSS: L.3.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do prefixes (un-, re-) and suffixes (-ness, -ful) change the meaning of a word (happy, happiness; help, helpful)?
  2. How are prefixes and suffixes useful in oral and written communication?
  3. How are prefixes and suffixes similar? How are they different?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Readers recognize common words that do not fit regular spelling patterns. (TV and magazines use common words that do not fit regular spelling patterns.)
  2. The spelling of a base word can change when adding suffixes (hop, hopping; hope, hoping).
  3. Decoding words is a skill that is useful throughout life.
  4. Animated graphic organizers can assist with the task of word categorization.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers use phonemes, graphemes (letters), and morphemes (suffixes, prefixes) in an alphabetic language.
  2. Readers can decode words with ease and notice if words have a prefix or suffix and simply see the base word.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Second Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Decoding words with accuracy depends on knowledge of complex spelling patterns and morphology

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. (CCSS: RF.2.3)
    • Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words. (CCSS: RF.2.3a)
    • Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams. (CCSS: RF.2.3b)
    • Read multisyllabic words accurately and fluently
    • Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels. (CCSS: RF.2.3c)
    • Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes. (CCSS: RF.2.3d)
    • Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences. (CCSS: RF.2.3e)
    • Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. (CCSS: RF.2.3f)
  2. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. (CCSS: RF.2.4)
    • Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. (CCSS: RF.2.4a)
    • Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. (CCSS: RF.2.4b)
    • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. (CCSS: RF.2.4c)
  3. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies. (CCSS: L.2.4)
    • Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.2.4a)
    • Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell). (CCSS: L.2.4b)
    • Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional). (CCSS: L.2.4c)
    • Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, bookmark). (CCSS: L.2.4d)
  4. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS: L.2.5)
    • Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe foods that are spicy or juicy). (CCSS: L.2.5a)
    • Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl) and closely related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender, skinny, scrawny). (CCSS: L.2.5b)
  5. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy). (CCSS: L.2.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do prefixes (un-, re-) and suffixes (-s, -ed, -est) change the meaning of a word?
  2. Which words don't follow the phonics rules?
  3. Which strategies should be used to decode multisyllabic words?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Readers recognize common words that do not fit regular spelling patterns.
  2. Readers understand that the spelling of a suffix connects to its meaning, not its sound (suffix -s = /z/ in dogs; -ed = /t/ in missed).

Nature Of:

  1. The ability to decode increasingly complex words is essential for successful reading development.
  2. Readers use phonemes, graphemes (letters), and morphemes (suffixes, prefixes) in an alphabetic language.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: First Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Decoding words require the application of alphabetic principles, letter sounds, and letter combinations

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. (CCSS: RF.1.3)
    • Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs (two letters that represent one sound). (CCSS: RF.1.3a)
    • Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words. (CCSS: RF.1.3b)
    • Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds. (CCSS: RF.1.3c)
    • Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word. (CCSS: RF.1.3d)
    • Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables. (CCSS: RF.1.3e)
    • Read words with inflectional endings. (CCSS: RF.1.3f)
    • Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. (CCSS: RF.1.3g)
    • Use onsets and rimes to create new words (ip to make dip, lip, slip, ship)
    • Accurately decode unknown words that follow a predictable letter/sound relationship

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do phonemes (speech sounds) connect to graphemes (letters and letter clusters)?
  2. What new words can readers make from the rime /ip/? What blends can readers use to build new words?
  3. What new game can you make with short vowels and closed syllables?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Readers can read and spell many new words using regular phoneme/grapheme correspondences.
  2. Software games can offer practice with the alphabet, sounds of letters, and letter combinations to decode words.
  3. Readers recognize common words that do not fit regular spelling patterns.
  4. The spelling of a suffix connects to its meaning, not its sound. (suffix -s = /z/ in dogs; -ed = /t/ in missed)

Nature Of:

  1. Readers use phonemes, graphemes (letters), and morphemes (suffixes) in an alphabetic language.
  2. Readers accurately read high-frequency words in connected text.
  3. Readers read grade-appropriate, decodable text.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

4. Understanding word structure, word relationships, and word families needs to be demonstrated to begin to read

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies. (CCSS: L.1.4)
    • Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.1.4a)
    • Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word. (CCSS: L.1.4b)
    • Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g., look) and their inflectional forms (e.g., looks, looked, looking). (CCSS: L.1.4c)
  2. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS: L.1.5)
    • Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent. (CCSS: L.1.5a)
    • Define words by category and by one or more key attributes (e.g., a duck is a bird that swims; a tiger is a large cat with stripes). (CCSS: L.1.5b)
    • Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy). (CCSS: L.1.5c)
    • Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings. (CCSS: L.1.5d)
  3. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because). (CCSS: L.1.6)
  4. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. (CCSS: RF.1.1)
    • Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation). (CCSS: RF.1.1a)
    • Create new words by combining base words with affixes to connect known words to new words
    • Identify and understand compound words

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why do readers call words with two words in them compound words?
  2. When readers sort words, what are some ways to sort them (types of concepts, attributes, initial sounds)?
  3. If a reader wants to show more than one, what suffix does he/she use?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Readers need to use a variety of strategies for reading unfamiliar words.
  2. When they recognize a compound word, readers can find the two words in it (such as hotdog, baseball, newspaper, pigpen, sandbox).
  3. Using base words with affixes expands vocabulary knowledge.
  4. Computer software and online games help one to understand word structure through the addition of multimedia and graphical representations of words and word families

Nature Of:

  1. Readers use language structure in oral and written communication.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Kindergarten
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. A concept of print to read and a solid comprehension of literary texts are the building blocks for reading

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (CCSS: RL.K.1)
    • With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details. (CCSS: RL.K.2)
    • With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story. (CCSS: RL.K.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text. (CCSS: RL.K.4)
    • Recognize common types of texts (e.g., storybooks, poems). (CCSS: RL.K.5)
    • With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling the story. (CCSS: RL.K.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts). (CCSS: RL.K.7)
    • With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories. (CCSS: RL.K.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity to:
    • Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. (CCSS: RL.K.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. During a picture-walk through a book, what do readers predict? Why?
  2. What words can readers use to describe the main character in a story?
  3. Was the title of this story a good title? What could be another title?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Thinking about the characters in a story helps make a connection to them.
  2. Online games and computer software provide a means to practice identifying main characters, setting, key events, arranging events in order.

Nature Of:

  1. Reading helps people understand themselves and make connections to the world.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. A concept of print to read and a solid comprehension of informational text are the building blocks for reading

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (CCSS: RI.K.1)
    • With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. (CCSS: RI.K.2)
    • With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text. (CCSS: RI.K.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text. (CCSS: RI.K.4)
    • Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book. (CCSS: RI.K.5)
    • Name the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information in a text. (CCSS: RI.K.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear (e.g., what person, place, thing, or idea in the text an illustration depicts). (CCSS: RI.K.7)
    • With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text. (CCSS: RI.K.8)
    • With prompting and support, identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures). (CCSS: RI.K.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity to:
    • Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. (CCSS: RI.K.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do the illustrations help you figure out the meaning of the text?
  2. Explain why informational text is not read like a literary text.

Relevance & Application:

  1. Environmental print, signs, or symbols help people follow directions (such as walk or wait street crossing signs, routine schedules).
  2. Environmental print, signs, or symbols help to organize daily life (put materials or toys away).
  3. When readers read or hear information, they remember what is learned and share information with others.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers make connections to what they are reading

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Decoding words in print requires alphabet recognition and knowledge of letter sounds

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. (CCSS: RF.K.1)
    • Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page. (CCSS: RF.K.1a)
    • Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters. (CCSS: RF.K.1b)
    • Understand that words are separated by spaces in print. (CCSS: RF.K.1c)
    • Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet. (CCSS: RF.K.1d)
  2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes). (CCSS: RF.K.2)
    • Recognize and produce rhyming words. (CCSS: RF.K.2a)
    • Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words. (CCSS: RF.K.2b)
    • Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words. (CCSS: RF.K.2c)
    • Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words. (This does not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.) (CCSS: RF.K.2d)
    • Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words. (CCSS: RF.K.2e)
    • Identify phonemes for letters.
  3. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content. (CCSS: L.K.4)
    • Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck). (CCSS: L.K.4a)
    • Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, pre-, -ful, -less) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word. (CCSS: L.K.4b)
  4. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. (CCSS: RF.K3)
    • Demonstrate basic knowledge of letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary or most frequent sound for each consonant. (CCSS: RF.K.3a)
    • Associate the long and short sounds with the common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels. (CCSS: RF.K.3b)
    • Read common high-frequency words by sight (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does). (CCSS: RF.K.3c)
    • Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ. (CCSS: RF.K.3d)
  5. Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding. (CCSS: RF.K.4)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do phonemes (speech sounds) connect to graphemes (letters and letter clusters)?
  2. What letters are needed to spell the word _______?
  3. What sounds are in the word _______?
  4. How many sounds are in the word "cat"? (/k/ /a/ /t/ - three sounds)
  5. Where do you find other letters in our room that are like letters in your name?
  6. Why is an uppercase letter used at the beginning of a name?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Readers can play with letter-sounds to make many new words (am, tam, Sam).
  2. Readers recognize common words that have similar spelling patterns (ant/plant, Tim/rim/brim, sun/run/fun).
  3. Using digital and video recording devices offer practice letter-sounds in order to hear and analyze their own voice.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers understand that phonemes (speech sounds) are connected to print using graphemes (letters).
  2. Readers know all of the letter sounds and letter names.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Preschool
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Print conveys meaning

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Hold books in upright position, turn pages sequentially, recognize correct orientation (top to bottom, left to right)
  2. Recognize print in the environment
  3. Recognize that printed material conveys meaning and connects to the reader's world
  4. Use and interpret illustrations to gain meaning
  5. Make predictions based on illustrations or portions of story or text
  6. Generate a picture or written response to a read-aloud that identifies the who or what of the story or text

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What does print communicate or tell readers?
  2. Why is print important?
  3. How many words are on this page?
  4. The pictures in this tale suggest the story is about __________.

Relevance & Application:

  1. Words, signs, and symbols all around the house and outside give direction (such as walk or wait street crossing signs, routine schedules).
  2. Words, signs, and symbols help people to organize their lives (put materials or toys away).
  3. Knowing how to hold a book means a more automatic and faster way to becoming a reader. Using the pictures on the page will help tell what the story is about.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers use environmental print, signs, or symbols to communicate with others.
  2. Readers know how to hold a book correctly and turn the pages.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Symbol, object, and letter recognition is a fundamental of reading and requires accuracy and speed

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Recognize own name in print
  2. Recognize the names of a minimum of 10 letters of the alphabet, specifically letters in own name
  3. Begin to name familiar objects, colors, letters, and numbers rapidly and in random order

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What do letters mean?
  2. How do letters and words communicate meaning?
  3. Why is it important that people know the letters in their name?
  4. How do letters connect with phonemes (speech sounds)?
  5. What items in a box are alike in some way? (For example, bear, bull-they are both animals. Both bear and bull start with /b/).

Relevance & Application:

  1. Children begin to understand that letters are symbols that represent meaning.
  2. Letters will help children learn to be good readers and writers.
  3. Children learn how to sort many items in their lives.
  4. Using letters to write a name or say the names of letters will help children be better readers.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers know that phonemes (speech sounds) are connected to print using graphemes (letters).
  2. Readers understand that letters and words convey meaning in the world.