New Colorado P-12 Academic Standards

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Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: High School
Standard: 1. Physical Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Matter has definite structure that determines characteristic physical and chemical properties

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation supporting the current model of an atom (DOK 1-3)
  2. Gather, analyze and interpret data on chemical and physical properties of elements such as density, melting point, boiling point, and conductivity (DOK 1-2)
  3. Use characteristic physical and chemical properties to develop predictions and supporting claims about elements' positions on the periodic table (DOK 1-2)
  4. Develop a model that differentiates atoms and molecules, elements and compounds, and pure substances and mixtures (DOK 2-3)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What patterns can be observed in the properties of elements and families in the periodic table?
  2. What properties do nanoscale particles have that are different than those of macroscopic samples of the same substance?

Relevance & Application:

  1. The unique properties of various elements make them useful for specific applications. For example, metalloids and semiconductors are useful in electronic applications.
  2. Alloys are created by combining metals with other elements to produce materials with useful properties that are not found in nature. For example, iron and carbon make steel.
  3. Consumers can make informed decisions regarding the purchase of household chemicals when they understand chemical properties and their implications. For example, choosing lead based versus non-lead based paints weighs safety concerns against color and durability in applications.
  4. The unique properties of nanoscale particles provide special benefits and dangers.

Nature Of:

  1. Recognize that the current understanding of molecular structure related to the physical and chemical properties of matter has developed over time and become more sophisticated as new technologies have led to new evidence. (DOK 1)
  2. Ask testable questions about the nature of matter, and use an inquiry approach to investigate it. (DOK 1-4)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Matter can change form through chemical or nuclear reactions abiding by the laws of conservation of mass and energy

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Recognize, analyze, interpret, and balance chemical equations (synthesis, decomposition, combustion, and replacement) or nuclear equations (fusion and fission) (DOK 1-2)
  2. Predict reactants and products for different types of chemical and nuclear reactions (DOK 1-2)
  3. Predict and calculate the amount of products produced in a chemical reaction based on the amount of reactants (DOK 1-2)
  4. Examine, evaluate, question, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media to investigate the conservation of mass and energy (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What patterns of chemical reactions exist?
  2. How are chemical reactions distinguished from nuclear reactions?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Products formed in different types of reactions are useful to people. For example, polymerase reactions making nylon.
  2. The use of chemicals can have both positive and negative environmental effects. For example, the use of lime to make acidic soils more productive or the use of CFCs causing the ozone hole.
  3. When using radioactive substances, there are benefits such as medicine and energy production as well as dangers such as environmental and health concerns.

Nature Of:

  1. Critically evaluate chemical and nuclear change models. (DOK 2-3)
  2. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of a model which represents complex natural phenomenon. (DOK 2-3)
  3. Use an inquiry approach to test predictions about chemical reactions. (DOK 1-4)
  4. Share experimental data, and respectfully discuss conflicting results. (DOK 2-3)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

4. Atoms bond in different ways to form molecules and compounds that have definite properties

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation supporting the current models of chemical bonding (DOK 1-3)
  2. Gather, analyze, and interpret data on chemical and physical properties of different compounds such as density, melting point, boiling point, pH, and conductivity (DOK 1-2)
  3. Use characteristic physical and chemical properties to develop predictions and supporting claims about compounds' classification as ionic, polar or covalent (DOK 1-2)
  4. Describe the role electrons play in atomic bonding (DOK 1)
  5. Predict the type of bonding that will occur among elements based on their position in the periodic table (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How can various substances be classified as ionic or covalent compounds?
  2. What role do electrons play in different types of chemical bonds?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Related compounds share some properties that help focus chemists when looking for a substance with particular properties for a specific application. For example, finding new super conductors.
  2. Carbon atoms bond in ways that provide the foundation for a wide range of applications. For example, forming chains and rings such as sugars and fats that are essential to life and developing synthetic fibers and oils.
  3. Living systems create and use various chemical compounds such as plants making sugars from photosynthesis and chemicals that can be used as medicine, and endocrine glands producing hormones.

Nature Of:

  1. Recognize that the current understanding of molecular structure related to the physical and chemical properties of matter has developed over time and become more sophisticated as new technologies have led to new evidence. (DOK 1)
  2. Employ data-collection technology to gather, view, analyze, and interpret data about chemical and physical properties of different compounds. (DOK 1-2)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 1. Physical Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Distinguish between physical and chemical changes, noting that mass is conserved during any change

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Identify the distinguishing characteristics between a chemical and a physical change (DOK 1)
  2. Gather, analyze, and interpret data on physical and chemical changes (DOK 1-2)
  3. Gather, analyze, and interpret data that show mass is conserved in a given chemical or physical change (DOK 1-2)
  4. Identify evidence that suggests that matter is always conserved in physical and chemical changes (DOK 1)
  5. Examine, evaluate, question, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media to investigate physical and chemical changes (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What evidence can indicate whether a change is physical or chemical?
  2. Is it easier to observe the conservation of mass in physical or chemical changes? Why?
  3. What would happen if mass were not conserved?

Relevance & Application:

  1. The freezing, thawing, and vaporization of Earth's water provide examples of physical changes.
  2. An understanding of chemical changes have resulted in the design various products such as refrigerants in air conditioners and refrigerators.
  3. Physical and chemical changes are involved in the collection and refinement of natural resources such as using arsenic in gold mining.
  4. Living systems conserve mass when waste products from some organisms are nutrients for others.

Nature Of:

  1. Evaluate the reproducibility of an experiment, and critically examine conflicts in experimental results. (DOK 2-3)
  2. Share experimental data, and respectfully discuss conflicting results emulating the practice of scientists. (DOK 2-3)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: Seventh Grade
Standard: 1. Physical Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Mixtures of substances can be separated based on their properties such as solubility, boiling points, magnetic properties, and densities

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Identify properties of substances in a mixture that could be used to separate those substances from each other (DOK 1)
  2. Develop and design a scientific investigation to separate the components of a mixture (DOK 2-4)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What techniques can be used to separate mixtures of substances based their properties?
  2. Which properties are the most useful in trying to separate mixtures of substances?
  3. How much difference must there be among the properties of substances for the properties to be useful in separating the substances?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Materials are sorted based on their properties in a variety of applications. For example, water filtration systems rely on the solubility, density, and physical sizes of substances and recycling facilities use the properties of materials to separate substances in single-stream recycling systems.
  2. Mining and oil refining processes use properties to separate materials.
  3. The kidneys use properties to filter wastes from the blood.

Nature Of:

  1. Ask testable questions and make a falsifiable hypothesis about using properties in perform separations, and design a method to find an answer. (DOK 2-4)
  2. Evaluate and critique experimental procedures designed to separate mixtures. (DOK 2-3)
  3. Share experimental data, and respectfully discuss inconsistent results. (DOK 2-3)
  4. Describe several ways in which scientists would study mixtures, and suggest ways that this has contributed to our understanding of materials. (DOK 1-2)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: Sixth Grade
Standard: 1. Physical Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. All matter is made of atoms, which are far too small to see directly through a light microscope. Elements have unique atoms and thus, unique properties. Atoms themselves are made of even smaller particles

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Identify evidence that suggests there is a fundamental building block of matter (DOK 1)
  2. Use the particle model of matter to illustrate characteristics of different substances (DOK 1-2)
  3. Develop an evidence based scientific explanation of the atomic model as the foundation for all chemistry (DOK 1-3)
  4. Find and evaluate appropriate information from reference books, journals, magazines, online references, and databases to compare and contrast historical explanations for the nature of matter (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. In the world of science what makes something a building block?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Living things consist of the same matter as the rest of the universe.

Nature Of:

  1. Work in groups using the writing process to effectively communicate an understanding of the particle model of matter. (DOK 1-2)
  2. Use technology to share research findings about historical explanations for the nature of matter and to publish information to various audiences. (DOK 1-2)
  3. Create models that explain the particle theory of matter. (DOK 2-3)
  4. Recognize and describe the ethical traditions of science: value peer review, truthful reporting of methods and outcomes, making work public, and sharing a lens of professional skepticism when reviewing others work. (DOK 1)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Atoms may stick together in well-defined molecules or be packed together in large arrays. Different arrangements of atoms into groups compose all substances

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Explain the similarities and differences between elements and compounds (DOK 1-2)
  2. Identify evidence suggesting that atoms form into molecules with different properties than their components (DOK 1-2)
  3. Find and evaluate information from a variety of resources about molecules (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why do substances behave differently? For example, why does water pour rapidly while syrup pours slowly?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Different arrangements of atoms provide different properties.
  2. Very small devices consist of large numbers of arranged groups of atoms that perform a specific function.

Nature Of:

  1. Use models and/or electronic media to show and understand how molecules are made of atoms. (DOK 1-2)
  2. Investigate how our current understanding of matter has developed through centuries of scientific investigations. (DOK 2-3)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. The physical characteristics and changes of solid, liquid, and gas states can be explained using the particulate model

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Explain how the arrangement and motion of particles in a substance such as water determine its state (DOK 1-2)
  2. Distinguish between changes in temperature and changes of state using the particle model of matter (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What determines whether matter is in the form of a solid, liquid, or gas?
  2. What is the kinetic molecular theory, and how does temperature affect the behavior of particles in a gas?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Solids, liquids, and gasses all have unique properties that make them useful in different situations. For example, solids are useful building materials.

Nature Of:

  1. Use models and technology tools to help visualize what is happening at the molecular level during phase changes. (DOK 1-2)
  2. Understand and apply the difference between scientific laws, theories and hypotheses. (DOK 1-2)
  3. Work in groups using the writing process to communicate an understanding how the particle model of matter explains various states of matter. (DOK 1-2)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

4. Distinguish among, explain, and apply the relationships among mass, weight, volume, and density

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Explain that the mass of an object does not change, but its weight changes based on the gravitational forces acting upon it (DOK 1)
  2. Predict how changes in acceleration due to gravity will affect the mass and weight of an object (DOK 1-2)
  3. Predict how mass, weight, and volume affect density (DOK 1-2)
  4. Measure mass and volume, and use these quantities to calculate density (DOK 1)
  5. Use tools to gather, view, analyze, and report results for scientific investigations about the relationships among mass, weight, volume, and density (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Which of the following is the best recommendation for a person trying to lose weight and why? -Reduce the number of calories he or she eats. -Exercise more. -Go to the Moon.
  2. If weight and mass are not the same thing, why might people use the words interchangeably?
  3. Describe a situation in which mass would be the most useful information to know about an object? Do the same for weight, volume, and density.

Relevance & Application:

  1. Mass, weight, and gravitational forces are critical for space travel, future visits to outer space, and possibly the colonization of places like the Moon or Mars.

Nature Of:

  1. Calculate the density of a sample, predict its ability to float or sink in a liquid of known density, design and perform the experiment, and justify discrepancies in the experimental outcome. (DOK 1-4)
  2. Ask testable questions and make a falsifiable hypothesis about density and design an inquiry based method to find an answer. (DOK 2-4)
  3. Select proper tools to measure the mass and volume of an object and use appropriate units. (DOK 1-2)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 1. Physical Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Mixtures of matter can be separated regardless of how they were created; all weight and mass of the mixture are the same as the sum of weight and mass of its parts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Develop, communicate, and justify a procedure to separate simple mixtures based on physical properties (DOK 1-3)
  2. Share evidence-based conclusions and an understanding of the impact on the weight/mass of a liquid or gas mixture before and after it is separated into parts (DOK 1-3)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do mixtures act similarly and differently from their original materials?
  2. What are some ways that mixtures can be separated?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Knowing properties helps determine how to separate mixtures.
  2. Mixtures make up Earth's layers. For example, rocks are mixtures of minerals, and minerals are mixtures of elements and compounds.

Nature Of:

  1. Ask testable questions about mixtures, make a falsifiable hypothesis, design an inquiry based method of finding the answer, collect data, and form a conclusion. (DOK 2-4)
  2. Select appropriate tools to conduct an experiment, use them correctly, and report the data in proper units. (DOK 1-2)
  3. Share results of experiments with others and respectfully discuss results that are not expected. (DOK 2-3)
  4. Review and analyze information presented by peers and provide feedback on their evidence and scientific reasoning about the separation of mixtures and how the separation impacts its total weight/mass. (DOK 2-3)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: Third Grade
Standard: 1. Physical Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Matter exists in different states such as solids, liquids, and gases and can change from one state to another by heating and cooling

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Analyze and interpret observations about matter as it freezes and melts, and boils and condenses (DOK 1-2)
  2. Use evidence to develop a scientific explanation around how heating and cooling affects states of matter (DOK 1-3)
  3. Identify the state of any sample of matter (DOK 1)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How can the state of matter of any object be decided?
  2. Where around the school would snow take the longest to melt? Why?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Water is distributed on Earth in different forms such as vapor, ice or glaciers, rivers, and freshwater or saltwater oceans.
  2. There is only a certain amount of water available for human use.

Nature Of:

  1. Ask a testable question about the heating and cooling of a substance, design a method to find the answer, collect data, and form a conclusion. (DOK 2-4)
  2. Demonstrate the importance of keeping accurate observations and notes in science. (DOK 1-2)
  3. Share results of experiments with others, and respectfully discuss results that are not expected. (DOK 2-3)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: First Grade
Standard: 1. Physical Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Solids and liquids have unique properties that distinguish them

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Analyze and interpret observations about solids and liquids and their unique properties (DOK 1-3)
  2. Identify the similarities and differences of two or more groups of solids or liquids (DOK 1-2)
  3. Classify solids and liquids based on their properties, and justify your choice based on evidence (DOK 1-3)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What do all liquids have in common? What are some differences they can have and still be considered liquids?
  2. What do all solids have in common? What are some differences they can have and still be considered solids?
  3. What properties of liquids can be used to sort them?
  4. What properties of solids can be used to sort them?

Relevance & Application:

  1. The properties of solids and liquids help us understand how to use matter. For example, we not build a bridge out of tissue because it is not strong enough.
  2. There are practical reasons for sorting liquids or solids.

Nature Of:

  1. Share results of experiments with others. (DOK 1-2)
  2. Recognize that observations are an important part of science. (DOK 1)
  3. Conduct collaborative experiments. (DOK 2-4)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: Kindergarten
Standard: 1. Physical Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Objects can be sorted by physical properties, which can be observed and measured

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Observe, investigate, and describe how objects can be sorted using their physical properties (DOK 1-2)
  2. Explain why objects are sorted into categories (DOK 2)
  3. Sort a set of objects based on their physical characteristics, and then explain how the objects are sorted (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How can objects belong to more than one group?
  2. How do you decide which properties are most important when putting objects into groups?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Materials have uses based on properties such as whether they are glass or plastic.
  2. Machines such as coin sorting machines can be designed to sort things efficiently.

Nature Of:

  1. Recognize that scientists try to be clear and specific when they describe things. (DOK 1)
  2. Share observations with others; be clear and precise like scientists. (DOK 1-2)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: Preschool
Standard: 1. Physical Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Objects have properties and characteristics

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use senses to gather information about objects (DOK 1-2)
  2. Make simple observations, predictions, explanations, and generalizations based on real-life experiences (DOK 1-2)
  3. Collect, describe, and record information through discussion, drawings, and charts (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How are various objects similar and different?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Use scientific tools such as magnets, magnifying glasses, scales, and rulers in investigations and play.

Nature Of:

  1. Be open to and curious about new tasks and challenges. (DOK 1-3)
  2. Explore and experiment. (DOK 1-3)
  3. Show capacity for invention and imagination. (DOK 1-3)
  4. Ask questions based on discoveries made while playing. (DOK 2)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. There are cause-and-effect relationships in everyday experiences

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Recognize and investigate cause-and-effect relationships in everyday experiences - pushing, pulling, kicking, rolling, or blowing objects (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do various objects react differently to the same cause?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Use scientific tools such as magnets, magnifying glasses, scales, and rulers in investigations and play.

Nature Of:

  1. Be open to and curious about new tasks and challenges. (DOK 2-3)
  2. Explore and experiment. (DOK 1-3)
  3. Reflect on and interpret cause-and-effect relationships. (DOK 2)