New Colorado P-12 Academic Standards

Current Display Filter: Science - All - by Specific Prepared Graduate Competency - (Remove PGC Filter)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: High School
Standard: 1. Physical Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

5. Energy exists in many forms such as mechanical, chemical, electrical, radiant, thermal, and nuclear, that can be quantified and experimentally determined

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation regarding the potential and kinetic nature of mechanical energy (DOK 1-3)
  2. Use appropriate measurements, equations and graphs to gather, analyze, and interpret data on the quantity of energy in a system or an object (DOK 1-3)
  3. Use direct and indirect evidence to develop predictions of the types of energy associated with objects (DOK 2-3)
  4. Identify different energy forms, and calculate their amounts by measuring their defining characteristics (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What factors can be measured to determine the amount of energy associated with an object?
  2. What are the most common forms of energy in our physical world?
  3. What makes an energy form renewable or nonrenewable?
  4. What makes some forms of energy hard to measure?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Society and energy providers must conduct a cost-benefit analysis of different ways to provide electricity to our society.
  2. An understanding of energy transformations is necessary when designing clean energy systems that convert any type of energy into electricity such as wind generators and solar cells.
  3. There are advantages and disadvantages to using various energy sources such as gasoline, diesel, ethanol, hydrogen, and electricity as transportation fuel.
  4. Politics plays a role in shaping energy policy such as balancing conflicting stakeholder needs.
  5. Energy plays a role in living systems and Earth's systems. For example, cells convert sugar to ATP and then to energy, energy inside the earth drives plate tectonic phenomena such as earthquakes and volcanoes, and energy from the Sun drives weather.

Nature Of:

  1. Critically evaluate scientific claims made in popular media or by peers regarding the application of energy forms, and determine if the evidence presented is appropriate and sufficient to support the claims. (DOK 2-3)
  2. Use the historical context and impact of early energy research and consider the potential implications for current energy studies on science and our society. (DOK 1-3)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

6. When energy changes form, it is neither created not destroyed; however, because some is necessarily lost as heat, the amount of energy available to do work decreases

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use direct and indirect evidence to develop and support claims about the conservation of energy in a variety of systems, including transformations to heat (DOK 1-3)
  2. Evaluate the energy conversion efficiency of a variety of energy transformations (DOK 1-2)
  3. Describe energy transformations both quantitatively and qualitatively (DOK 1-2)
  4. Differentiate among the characteristics of mechanical and electromagnetic waves that determine their energy (DOK 2)
  5. Examine, evaluate, question, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media to investigate energy conservation and loss (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why is 100 percent efficiency impossible in an energy transformation?
  2. How does the law of conservation of energy help us solve problems involving complex systems?
  3. Scientists or engineers often say energy is "lost." Is there a word that might be better than "lost?" Why?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Incremental strides have been made in improving the efficiency of different forms of energy production and consumption. For example, today's engines are much more efficient than those from 50 years ago, and batteries are more powerful and last longer than those from just a few years ago.
  2. Different technologies such as light-emitting diodes, compact fluorescent lights, and incandescent light bulbs have different efficiencies and environmental impacts.

Nature Of:

  1. Critically evaluate scientific claims made in popular media or by peers regarding the application of energy transformations, and determine if the evidence presented is appropriate and sufficient to support the claims. (DOK 2-3)
  2. Ask testable questions and make a falsifiable hypothesis about the conservation of energy, and use an inquiry approach to find an answer. (DOK 1-4)
  3. Share experimental data, and respectfully discuss conflicting results emulating the practice of scientists. (DOK 2-3)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 1. Physical Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. There are different forms of energy, and those forms of energy can be changed from one form to another - but total energy is conserved

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Gather, analyze, and interpret data to describe the different forms of energy and energy transfer (DOK 1-2)
  2. Develop a research-based analysis of different forms of energy and energy transfer (DOK 1-3)
  3. Use research-based models to describe energy transfer mechanisms, and predict amounts of energy transferred (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Which forms of energy can be directly observed, and which forms of energy must be inferred?
  2. What evidence supports the existence of potential and kinetic energy?
  3. Is there a limit to how many times energy can be transferred? Explain your answer.

Relevance & Application:

  1. Photos and measurements of accident investigation provide evidence of energy transfers during such events.
  2. Kinetic energy often is turned into heat such as when brakes are applied to a vehicle or when space vehicles re-enter Earth's atmosphere.
  3. Energy transfers convert electricity to light, heat, or kinetic energy in motors.
  4. There are ways of producing electricity using both nonrenewable resources such as such as coal or natural gas and renewable sources such as hydroelectricity or solar, wind, and nuclear power.

Nature Of:

  1. Share experimental data, and respectfully discuss conflicting results. (DOK 2-3)
  2. Recognize and describe the ethical traditions of science: value peer review; truthful reporting of methods and outcomes; making work public; and sharing a lens of professional skepticism when reviewing the work of others. (DOK 1)
  3. Use tools to gather, view, analyze, and report results for scientific investigations designed to answer questions about energy transformations. (DOK 1-2)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

4. Recognize that waves such as electromagnetic, sound, seismic, and water have common characteristics and unique properties

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Compare and contrast different types of waves (DOK 1-2)
  2. Describe for various waves the amplitude, frequency, wavelength, and speed (DOK 1)
  3. Describe the relationship between pitch and frequency in sound (DOK 1)
  4. Develop and design a scientific investigation regarding absorption, reflection, and refraction of light (DOK 2-4)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What are some different ways to describe waves?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Different vibrations create waves with different characteristics. For example, a vibrating low-pitch guitar string feels different to the touch than a high-pitch guitar string.
  2. Dealing with different types of waves presents design challenges. For example, higher frequency waves have shorter wavelengths, which affect ships, buildings, and antenna design.
  3. Energy from different types of waves can affect the environment. For example, natural waves cause different beach erosion and boat wakes
  4. There are many applications of light and lasers such as using fiber optics in high speed communication and lasers in surgery.
  5. Living organisms collect and use light and sound waves - such as for hearing and vision - to gather information about their surroundings.

Nature Of:

  1. Evaluate models used to explain and predict wave phenomena that cannot be directly measured. (DOK 2-3)
  2. Understand that scientists work from the assumption that the universe is a single system in which the basic rules are the same everywhere. For example, the speed of light in a vacuum is constant across space and time. (DOK 1)
  3. Select and use technology tools to gather, view, analyze, and report results for scientific investigations about the characteristics and properties of waves. (DOK 1-2)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: Fourth Grade
Standard: 1. Physical Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Energy comes in many forms such as light, heat, sound, magnetic, chemical, and electrical

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Identify and describe the variety of energy sources (DOK 1)
  2. Show that electricity in circuits requires a complete loop through which current can pass (DOK 1)
  3. Describe the energy transformation that takes place in electrical circuits where light, heat, sound, and magnetic effects are produced (DOK 1-2)
  4. Use multiple resources - including print, electronic, and human - to locate information about different sources of renewable and nonrenewable energy (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do we know that energy exists within a system such as in an electrical circuit?
  2. How can heat be transferred from one object to another?

Relevance & Application:

  1. There are multiple energy sources, both renewable and nonrenewable.
  2. Energy can be used or stored. For example, it can be stored in a battery and then used when running a portable media player such as an iPod.
  3. Transportation, manufacturing, and technology are driven by energy.

Nature Of:

  1. Ask testable questions about energy, make a falsifiable hypothesis and design an inquiry based method of finding the answer, collect data, and form a conclusion. (DOK 2-4)
  2. Understand that models are developed to explain and predict phenomena that cannot be directly observed. (DOK 1)
  3. Critically evaluate models of energy, identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the model in representing what happens in the real world. (DOK 2-3)
  4. Create plans to decrease electrical energy use for one week and evaluate the results. (DOK 2-4)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: Kindergarten
Standard: 3. Earth Systems Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. The Sun provides heat and light to Earth

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Investigate, explain, and describe that the Sun provides heat and light to Earth (DOK 1)
  2. Analyze and interpret temperature data between day (when the Sun shines on our area) and night (when the Sun does not shine on our area) (DOK 1-3)
  3. Investigate and communicate findings about what happens when the Sun's light is blocked (DOK 1-2)
  4. Investigate and communicate the effect of varying heat and light on the growth of plants through a scientific study (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does the Sun impact Earth?
  2. What happens when the Sun's light is blocked?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Decisions about activities to do on school grounds can be based on the light and heat from the sun (i.e. read under a tree to stay cool or avoid the slide when it is too hot from the sun, etc.)
  2. People make decisions about where to live based on temperature and how much sun that place gets.

Nature Of:

  1. Question peers and encourage clarity of reasoning about why they think the Sun provides heat and light to Earth. (DOK 2)