New Colorado P-12 Academic Standards

Current Display Filter: Science - All - by Specific Prepared Graduate Competency - (Remove PGC Filter)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: High School
Standard: 2. Life Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Cellular metabolic activities are carried out by biomolecules produced by organisms

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Identify biomolecules and their precursors/building blocks (DOK 1)
  2. Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based explanation that biomolecules follow the same rules of chemistry as any other molecule (DOK 1-3)
  3. Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based explanation regarding the optimal conditions required for enzyme activity (DOK 1-3)
  4. Infer the consequences to organisms of suboptimal enzyme function - such as altered blood pH or high fever - using direct and indirect evidence (DOK 1-3)
  5. Analyze and interpret data on the body's utilization of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How are rates of enzyme activity in cells affected by various factors such as pH or temperature?
  2. How does one know that enzymes speed up chemical reactions?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Apply knowledge of biomolecular structure and activity to make consumer decisions, especially about diet with respect to saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, essential and nonessential amino acids, and simple and complex carbohydrates.
  2. Explain how high temperatures such as a fever may alter cellular enzyme activity.
  3. Recognize that many biomolecules can be made in the lab and have the exact same structure and function as ones made by living organisms.

Nature Of:

  1. Critically evaluate scientific explanations in popular media to determine if the research methodology and evidence presented are appropriate and sufficient to support the claims. (DOK 2-3)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

4. The energy for life primarily derives from the interrelated processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Photosynthesis transforms the sun's light energy into the chemical energy of molecular bonds. Cellular respiration allows cells to utilize chemical energy when these bonds are broken.

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation the optimal environment for photosynthetic activity (DOK 1-3)
  2. Discuss the interdependence of autotrophic and heterotrophic life forms such as depicting the flow of a carbon atom from the atmosphere, to a leaf, through the food chain, and back to the atmosphere (DOK 1-2)
  3. Explain how carbon compounds are gradually oxidized to provide energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which drives many chemical reactions in the cell (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What variables can be manipulated to change the rate of photosynthesis?
  2. What variables affect the rate of cell respiration?
  3. How does body heat relate to cellular respiration?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Agriculture is of great importance to humans. For example, most food comes from agriculture.
  2. Various foods such as cheeses, yogurts, alcohol, and breads are produced by fermentation - anaerobic respiration - that is carried out by various organisms.
  3. The experience of muscle fatigue after intense exercise is related to anaerobic respiration in muscle cells.
  4. Primary producers such as marine phytoplankton and rainforest flora play an integral role in sustaining all life on Earth.

Nature Of:

  1. Recognize that the current understanding of photosynthesis and cellular respiration has developed over time and become more sophisticated as new technologies have lead to new evidence. (DOK 1)
  2. Critically evaluate models for photosynthesis and cellular respiration, and identify their strengths and weaknesses. (DOK 2-3)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

5. Cells use passive and active transport of substances across membranes to maintain relatively stable intracellular environments

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Analyze and interpret data to determine the energy requirements and/or rates of substance transport across cell membranes (DOK 1-2)
  2. Compare organisms that live in freshwater and marine environments, and identify the challenges of osmotic regulation for these organisms (DOK 2)
  3. Diagram the cell membrane schematically, and highlight receptor proteins as targets of hormones, neurotransmitters, or drugs that serve as active links between intra and extracellular environments (DOK 1)
  4. Use tools to gather, view, analyze, and interpret data produced during scientific investigations that involve passive and active transport (DOK 1-2)
  5. Use computer simulations and models to analyze cell transport mechanisms (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What variables affect the rate of transport across a membrane?
  2. Why is it important that cell membranes are selectively permeable?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Osmotically balanced solutions such as intravenous and ophthalmic solutions are critical in medical settings.
  2. Drugs target receptor proteins such as hormones and neurotransmitters in membranes and mimic the action of natural signals there.
  3. Technology is used to support humans on dialysis.

Nature Of:

  1. Ask testable questions and make a falsifiable hypothesis about how cells transport materials into and out of the cell and use an inquiry approach to find the answer. (DOK 1-4)
  2. Share experimental data, and respectfully discuss conflicting results emulating the practice of scientists. (DOK 2-3)
  3. Recognize and describe the ethical traditions of science: value peer review; truthful reporting of methods and outcomes; making work public; and sharing a lens of professional skepticism when reviewing the work of others. (DOK 1)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

6. Cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems maintain relatively stable internal environments, even in the face of changing external environments

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Discuss how two or more body systems interact to promote health for the whole organism (DOK 1-2)
  2. Analyze and interpret data on homeostatic mechanisms using direct and indirect evidence to develop and support claims about the effectiveness of feedback loops to maintain homeostasis (DOK 1-2)
  3. Distinguish between causation and correlation in epidemiological data, such as examining scientifically valid evidence regarding disrupted homeostasis in particular diseases (DOK 2)
  4. Use computer simulations and models of homeostatic mechanisms (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How can an experiment be designed and conducted to test for adaptive homeostasis during exercise and other body activities?
  2. Where and when are negative versus positive feedback loops more effective in the human body?

Relevance & Application:

  1. The disruption of homeostatic mechanisms may lead to disease, and if severe enough, death.
  2. Body systems differ when in a state of health and disease. For example, buildup and rupture of atherosclerotic plaque inside a blood vessel can cause a heart attack.
  3. The regulatory responses of autoimmune diseases such as Type I diabetes, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis are different than those of healthy immune systems.

Nature Of:

  1. Research and present findings about the results of dietary deficiencies or excesses. (DOK 1-2)
  2. Research and present findings about how medical problems that impact life span have changed throughout history due to altered lifestyles and advances in medicine. (DOK 1-2)
  3. Differentiate between scientific evidence evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for drug approval and anecdotal evidence shared among individuals or in magazines/newspapers that a food or supplement is effective for a given problem. (DOK 2)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: Seventh Grade
Standard: 2. Life Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. The human body is composed of atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems that have specific functions and interactions

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Develop and design a scientific investigation about human body systems (DOK 2-4)
  2. Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation regarding the functions and interactions of the human body (DOK 1-3)
  3. Gather, analyze, and interpret data and models on the functions and interactions of the human body (DOK 1-3)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does each body system contribute to supporting the life of the organism?
  2. How do organs and organ systems in the human body interact to perform specific functions?

Relevance & Application:

  1. There are technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scans, and chemical lab tests that are related to the diagnosis and treatment of the human body's diseases

Nature Of:

  1. Critically evaluate models, and identify the strengths and weaknesses of the model in representing our understanding of the human body (DOK 2-3)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Cells are the smallest unit of life that can function independently and perform all the necessary functions of life

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Gather, analyze, and interpret data and models on the different types of cells, their structures, components and functions (DOK 1-2)
  2. Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation regarding cell structures, components, and their specific functions (DOK 1-3)
  3. Compare and contrast the basic structures and functions of plant cells, animal cells, and single-celled organisms (DOK 2)
  4. Employ tools to gather, view, analyze, and report results for the scientific investigations of cells (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How is the basic structure of a cell related to its function?
  2. How are the components - or organelles - of a cell related to the cell's function?
  3. How are various cells unique, and what do they have in common with other cells?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have potential use in medicine.
  2. Cancer is caused by a cell that isn't functioning correctly.
  3. Cells can be cultured to benefit humanity.

Nature Of:

  1. Recognize that our current understanding of cells has developed over centuries of studies by many scientists, and that through continued scientific investigations and advances in data collection, we will continue to refine our understanding of cells. (DOK 1)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

4. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are important processes by which energy is acquired and utilized by organisms

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Gather, analyze, and interpret data regarding the basic functions of photosynthesis and cellular respiration (DOK 1-2)
  2. Use direct and indirect evidence to describe the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration within plants - and between plants and animals (DOK 1-2)
  3. Use computer simulations to model the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration within plants - and between plants and animals (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What is the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
  2. What energy transformations occur in both the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Plants are essential for human health and the health and survival of Earth's ecosystems.
  2. The energy in food comes from Sunlight via photosynthesis and is the basis for most ecosystems on earth.
  3. Fossil fuels come from the photosynthesis of organisms that lived millions of years ago.

Nature Of:

  1. Ask a testable question and make a falsifiable hypothesis about photosynthesis or respiration and design an inquiry based method to find an answer. (DOK 2-4)
  2. Design an experiment to observe photosynthesis or respiration, and clearly define controls and variables. (DOK 2-4)
  3. Share experimental data, and respectfully discuss conflicting results emulating the practice of scientists. (DOK 2-3)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 2. Life Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Human body systems have basic structures, functions, and needs

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Develop and communicate an evidence-based scientific explanation regarding how humans address basic survival needs (DOK 1-3)
  2. Analyze and interpret data to generate evidence that human systems are interdependent (DOK 1-2)
  3. Assess further scientific explanations regarding basic human body system functions (DOK 1-3)
  4. Create and evaluate models of human body systems and organs (DOK 2-3)
  5. Compare and contrast a human system to that of another organism, and provide hypotheses about why the similarities and differences exist (DOK 2-3)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How are human body systems similar to and different from those found in other organisms?
  2. How are organs impacted when different body systems fail to work correctly?

Relevance & Application:

  1. People can create goals about their own lifestyle such as exercising every day and eating healthy foods based on an understanding of human body systems.
  2. Societal norms and practices that are intended to protect our health such as wearing a bicycle helmet can be based on scientific evidence.

Nature Of:

  1. Review and analyze information presented by peers on the structure and function of the human body and provide feedback on their evidence and scientific conclusions. (DOK 2-3)
  2. Critically evaluate models of the human body, identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the model in representing complex natural phenomena. (DOK 2-3)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: Second Grade
Standard: 2. Life Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Each plant or animal has different structures or behaviors that serve different functions

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use evidence to develop an explanation as to why a habitat is or is not suitable for a specific organism (DOK 1-3)
  2. Analyze and interpret data about structures or behaviors of a population that help that population survive (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What different structures do plants and animals have that perform the same functions? For example, what different structure do plants and animals have to get water?

Relevance & Application:

  1. A single environment can support a variety of living things that use different kinds and amounts of resources.
  2. Body designs, such as the skull of a woodpecker or the nose of a dog, serves specific and unique jobs.

Nature Of:

  1. Give feedback regarding the advantages of specific structures and behaviors. (DOK 2-3)
  2. Share observations, and provide and respond to feedback on ideas about the advantages of specific structures and behaviors. (DOK 1-3)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: First Grade
Standard: 2. Life Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. An organism is a living thing that has physical characteristics to help it survive

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Identify organisms and use evidence based scientific explanations for classifying them into groups (DOK 1-3)
  2. Analyze and interpret data about the needs of plants and animals (DOK 1-2)
  3. Use direct observations and other evidence to support ideas concerning physical characteristics that help plants and animals survive (DOK 1-3)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do the needs of plants and animals differ?
  2. What helps a specific plant or animal survive?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Animals and plants have characteristics that help them survive in the local environment. For example, the thick fur of animals such as raccoons, bears, and mule deer helps them survive the cold winters in Colorado.
  2. A living thing can be harmed if needed resources are lacking.

Nature Of:

  1. Ask testable questions about the needs of an organism. (DOK 2)
  2. Predict the outcome for an organism if a need is removed. (DOK 2-3)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: Kindergarten
Standard: 2. Life Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Organisms can be described and sorted by their physical characteristics

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Sort a group of items based on observable characteristics (DOK 1-2)
  2. Communicate and justify an evidence-based scientific rationale for sorting organisms into categories (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What do living things have in common?
  2. What characteristics are useful for sorting and classifying organisms?

Relevance & Application:

  1. There are patterns in the natural world.
  2. There are many ways to classify a group of organisms.

Nature Of:

  1. Ask questions about physical characteristics that will help them sort organisms. (DOK 2)
  2. Share scientific ideas verbally in a clear way. (DOK 1-2)
  3. Question peers about reasons for how they sort organisms, and encourage them to use evidence to support their ideas. (DOK 2)
  4. Use scientific tools such as magnifying glasses, sorting blocks, and rulers in investigations and play. (DOK 1)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: Preschool
Standard: 2. Life Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Living things have characteristics and basic needs

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use senses to gather information about living things (DOK 1-2)
  2. Observe and explore the natural processes of growing, changing, and adapting to the environment (DOK 1-2)
  3. Ask and pursue questions through simple investigations and observations of living things (DOK 2-3)
  4. Collect, describe, and record information about living things through discussion, drawings, and charts (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What do living things need to survive?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Mittens and hats keep people warm when the weather is cold.
  2. Gills on a fish allow them to "breathe" under water.

Nature Of:

  1. Be open to and curious about new tasks and challenges. (DOK 1-3)
  2. Explore and experiment. (DOK 1-3)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Living things develop in predictable patterns

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Identify the common needs such as food, air, and water of familiar living things (DOK 1)
  2. Predict, explain, and infer patterns based on observations and representations of living things, their needs, and life cycles (DOK 1-3)
  3. Make and record by drawing, acting out, or describing observations of living things and how they change over time (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do different living things change over time?
  2. What are some similarities and differences in how living things develop?
  3. How do the adults of various animals compare to younger versions of those same animals?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Butterflies have a predictable growth cycle.
  2. Leaves on a tree change color and fall every year.

Nature Of:

  1. Show a capacity for invention and imagination when looking for patterns of development. (DOK 1-3)