New Colorado P-12 Academic Standards

Current Display Filter: Science - All - by Specific Prepared Graduate Competency - (Remove PGC Filter)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: High School
Standard: 2. Life Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

7. Physical and behavioral characteristics of an organism are influenced to varying degrees by heritable genes, many of which encode instructions for the production of proteins

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Analyze and interpret data that genes are expressed portions of DNA. (DOK 1-2)
  2. Analyze and interpret data on the processes of DNA replication, transcription, translation, and gene regulation, and show how these processes are the same in all organisms (DOK 1-2)
  3. Recognize that proteins carry out most cell activities and mediate the effect of genes on physical and behavioral traits in an organism (DOK 1)
  4. Evaluate data showing that offspring are not clones of their parents or siblings due to the meiotic processes of independent assortment of chromosomes, crossing over, and mutations (DOK 1-2)
  5. Explain using examples how genetic mutations can benefit, harm, or have neutral effects on an organism (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why is it possible for a cell from one species to express genes from another species as in genetic modification of organisms?
  2. Why are human offspring not genetic clones of their parents or siblings?
  3. How is it possible to distinguish learned from instinctual behaviors such as imprinting etiquette, and suckling by mammals?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Recombinant DNA technology has many uses in society such as the development of new medical therapies and increased production of drugs.
  2. Selective breeding differs from genetic modification, yet shares a common goal.
  3. There are benefits and risks to having genetically modified organisms in the food supply.
  4. There are implications to inheriting DNA replication errors.

Nature Of:

  1. Recognizing that research on genetically modified organisms is done in university laboratories and seed companies, discuss the implications of different types of funding and the ethical traditions of science: value peer review; truthful reporting of methods and outcomes; making work public; and sharing a lens of professional skepticism when reviewing the work of others. (DOK 1-2)
  2. Understand that scientists work from the assumption that the universe is a single system in which the basic rules are the same everywhere - that basic principles for genetics apply to all organisms. (DOK 1)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

8. Multicellularity makes possible a division of labor at the cellular level through the expression of select genes, but not the entire genome.

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation of how cells form specialized tissues due to the expression of some genes and not others (DOK 1-3)
  2. Analyze and interpret data that show most eukaryotic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) does not actively code for proteins within cells (DOK 1-2)
  3. Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation for how a whole organism can be cloned from a differentiated - or adult - cell (DOK 1-3)
  4. Analyze and interpret data on medical problems using direct and indirect evidence in developing and supporting claims that genetic mutations and cancer are brought about by exposure to environmental toxins, radiation, or smoking (DOK 1-3)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why is it possible to clone a whole organism from an undifferentiated cell?
  2. Why are stem cells sought by researchers as potential cures to medical problems?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Stem cells may be used to improve medical disorders such as diabetes, Parkinson's disease, torn cartilage, and damaged hearts.
  2. Recent research and insights into DNA and genes have changed many aspects of society such as the criminal justice system, food supply, and medical treatments.

Nature Of:

  1. Debate the advantages and disadvantages of bioengineering - cloning or genetically modifying - organisms in the food supply. (DOK 2-3)
  2. Science is influenced by the cultural norms of a society. Discuss the ethical and political issues associated with stem cell research and how these have impacted both the research done and its applications. (DOK 1-3)
  3. Debate the ethical and political issues associated with stem cell research and how these affect research. (DOK 2-3)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 2. Life Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Organisms reproduce and transmit genetic information (genes) to offspring, which influences individuals' traits in the next generation

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation for how genetic information is passed to the next generation (DOK 1-3)
  2. Use direct and indirect observations, evidence, and data to support claims about genetic reproduction and traits of individuals (DOK 1-3)
  3. Gather, analyze, and interpret data on transmitting genetic information (DOK 1-2)
  4. Use models and diagrams to predict the phenotype and genotype of offspring based on the genotype of the parents (DOK 1-2)
  5. Use computer simulations to model and predict phenotype and genotype of offspring based on the genotype of the parents (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How are traits passed from one generation to the next?
  2. What traits can be passed to the next generation and what traits cannot?
  3. How can patterns in the inheritance of traits be used to predict how frequently they appear in offspring?

Relevance & Application:

  1. There are benefits and risks to genetic engineering such as cloning, genetically modifying organisms, and replacing genes for therapy.
  2. Genome sequencing has many potential applications to the field of medicine.

Nature Of:

  1. Understand the interconnected nature of math and science by utilizing math in the prediction of future generations. (DOK 2)
  2. Recognize that current understanding of genetics has developed over time and become more sophisticated as new technologies have lead to new evidence. (DOK 1)
  3. Critically evaluate models used to represent deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and genes; identify strengths and weaknesses of these models for representing complex natural phenomena. (DOK 2-3)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 2. Life Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. All organisms have structures and systems with separate functions

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Develop and communicate an evidence-based scientific explanation of the role of different organs or structures that are important for an organism's survival - in both plants and animals (DOK 1-3)
  2. Analyze and interpret data to generate evidence that all organisms have structures that are required for survival in both plants and animals (DOK 1-2)
  3. Create and evaluate models of plant and/or animal systems or parts (DOK 2-3)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do plants and animals carry out processes necessary for life?
  2. What different structures do plants and animals use to carry out the same functions?
  3. What adaptations or characteristics help humans survive?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Different organism structures are adapted to different functions to ensure survival, and humans often manipulate these different structures for their own uses such as making building materials, food, and medicines.
  2. Humans have long exploited animals and plants through fishing, herding, and agriculture in order to manage them as renewable food resources.
  3. There are tools and materials - such as Velcro - made by humans that were inspired by animal or plant adaptations.

Nature Of:

  1. Review and analyze information presented by peers and provide feedback on their evidence regarding the importance of various structures to plants and animals. (DOK 2-3)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: Fourth Grade
Standard: 2. Life Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. All living things share similar characteristics, but they also have differences that can be described and classified

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use evidence to develop a scientific explanation of what plants and animals need to survive (DOK 1-3)
  2. Use evidence to develop a scientific explanation for similarities and/or differences among different organisms (species) (DOK 1-3)
  3. Analyze and interpret data representing variation in a trait (DOK 1-2)
  4. Examine, evaluate, question, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media to investigate questions about characteristics of living things (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How have classification systems changed over time?
  2. How are individuals in a related species similar and different?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Human beings have use technology in order to survive in a variety of climates, such as heating and air conditioning.

Nature Of:

  1. Understand that all scientific knowledge is subject to new findings and that the presence of reproducible results yields a scientific theory. (DOK 1)
  2. Evaluate and provide feedback on evidence used by others to justify how they classified organisms. (DOK 2-3)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: Third Grade
Standard: 2. Life Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. The duration and timing of life cycle events such as reproduction and longevity vary across organisms and species

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use evidence to develop a scientific explanation regarding the stages of how organisms develop and change over time (DOK 1-3)
  2. Analyze and interpret data to generate evidence that different organisms develop differently over time (DOK 1-2)
  3. Use a variety of media to collect and analyze data regarding how organisms develop (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How are life cycles from a variety of organisms similar and different?
  2. How does an organism change throughout its life cycle?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Living things may have different needs at different points in their life cycles.

Nature Of:

  1. Ask a testable question about the life cycles of a variety of organisms. (DOK 2)
  2. Compare what is done in class to the work of scientists: -Scientists evaluate and use data generated by other scientists to further their own ideas, just like students compare data in class. -A community of scientists weaves together different evidence and ideas to deepen understanding, similar to how students do investigations and read books to deepen understanding about a concept. (DOK 1-2)

Content Area: Science
Grade Level Expectations: First Grade
Standard: 2. Life Science

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) - (Remove PGC Filter)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Offspring have characteristics that are similar to but not exactly like their parents' characteristics

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use evidence to analyze similarities and differences between parents and offspring in a variety of organisms including both plants and animals (DOK 1-2)
  2. Analyze and interpret data regarding the similarities and differences between parents and offspring (DOK 1-2)
  3. Question peers about evidence used in developing ideas about similarities and differences between parents and offspring (DOK 1-2)
  4. Interpret information represented in pictures, illustrations, and simple charts (DOK 1-2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How are you like your parents?
  2. In what ways do offspring resemble their parents?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Diversity - or variation - exists within populations of living organisms.
  2. Family photographs often reveal similar physical traits.
  3. Parents eye color can be different their child's.

Nature Of:

  1. Compare and contrast data, recognizing that this is a process scientists would do in their work. (DOK 1-2)
  2. Question peers about the evidence used in developing their ideas about the similarities and differences between parents and offspring. (DOK 2)