New Colorado P-12 Academic Standards

Current Display Filter: Reading, Writing and Communicating - All

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Twelfth Grade
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Effective speaking in formal and informal settings requires appropriate use of methods and audience awareness

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks. (CCSS: SL.11-12.4)
  2. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (CCSS: SL.11-12.5)
  3. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (CCSS: SL.11-12.6)
  4. Identify a central idea or thesis, organize ideas, and develop a speech for an intended purpose and audience
  5. Choose specific words and word order for intended effect and meaning
  6. Select appropriate technical or specialized language

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do different purposes and audiences affect presentation outcomes?
  2. What connections are there between print text structures (such as chronology, description, proposition-support, critique, inductive-deductive) and the organization and development of content for a specific oral presentation?
  3. Why is it important to match the vocabulary used to a particular audience? (For example, scientific terms are important to use when talking with biologists or physicists.)

Relevance & Application:

  1. Strong communication and planning skills contribute to local and national stewardship.
  2. Intentional word choice can influence the reader.
  3. Political or social causes are only victorious when a representative can persuasively present.
  4. Strategic use of multimedia elements and visual displays of data can gain audience attention and enhance understanding.
  5. An audience can be influenced by the use of theatrical devices such as pausing for emphasis and loud and soft tones.

Nature Of:

  1. Strong critical thinking in a group setting occurs when an oral presentation is clear and effective.
  2. Knowledge is attained through clear and effective communication.
  3. Great presenters plan for a presentation by determining their audience, research a topic of interest, and use the best presentation methods to convey key points.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Effective collaborative groups accomplish goals

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision-making, set clear goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as needed. (CCSS: SL.11-12.1b)
  2. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives. (CCSS: SL.11-12.1c)
  3. Implement an effective group effort that achieves a goal
  4. Participate in the preparations of the group activity or product, defining and assuming individual roles and responsibilities
  5. Assume a leadership role in a group that is collaboratively working to accomplish a goal
  6. Self-evaluate roles in the preparation and completion of the group goal
  7. Critique and offer suggestions for improving presentations given by own group and other groups

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why is being able to effectively function in a collaborative group a necessary skill?
  2. How do effective groups balance individual responsibility with group interdependence?
  3. What criteria could be used to measure the effectiveness of a group?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Assuming responsibility for and participation in small group activities (such as a sports team, debate team, fundraising, part-time job, service project) improves the quality of the intended goal.
  2. Raising questions in a group setting can often lead to new and unexpected outcomes.
  3. Using a shared online workspace enables groups to build collective knowledge.
  4. Enlisting all members of a sports team to do their part ensures a win and a successful team.

Nature Of:

  1. Use of skilled communication in group settings creates collaboration and understanding.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eleventh Grade
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Verbal and nonverbal cues impact the intent of communication

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Give informal talks using an appropriate level of formality of verbal language and nonverbal interaction with audience
  2. Deliver formal oral presentations for intended purpose and audience, using effective verbal and nonverbal communication
  3. Deliver oral talks with clear enunciation, vocabulary, and appropriate organization; nonverbal gestures; and tone
  4. Analyze audience responses to evaluate how effectively the talk or presentation met the purpose
  5. Identify, explain, and use content-specific vocabulary, terminology, dialect, or jargon unique to particular groups, perspectives, or contexts (such as social, professional, political, cultural, historical or geographical)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. In what ways can speakers effectively engage audiences throughout a presentation?
  2. How are speaking, listening, and responding skills used during an effective presentation?
  3. What can speakers learn about their own presentation skills from listening to and critiquing the presentations of others?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Tone and eye contact can negatively influence an outcome.
  2. Verbal and nonverbal cues can build or destroy the trust of an individual or an audience.
  3. Real-time feedback technologies can provide nonverbal cues and systematic information regarding a speaker's degree of impact or persuasion on an audience.
  4. Electronic tools, for example pod casts or video conferencing, can allow deliver to and feedback from a diverse audience.
  5. World travelers often use nonverbal cues to communicate needs.
  6. Forensic and debate techniques frequently self-correct to gain the favor of an audience's judgment.

Nature Of:

  1. Great presenters are accustomed to public speaking.
  2. Great presenters think about what types of language (formal or informal) they need to use to convey a message.
  3. Audience analysis is critical to being understood and credible.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Validity of a message is determined by its accuracy and relevance

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11-12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. (CCSS: SL.11-12.1)
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas. (CCSS: SL.11-12.1a)
    • Critique the accuracy, relevance, and organization of evidence of a presentation
    • Evaluate effectiveness of oral delivery techniques
    • Listen critically to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the presentation
    • Analyze the resources cited for validity
    • Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task. (CCSS: SL.11-12.1b)
  2. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data. (CCSS: SL.11-12.2)
  3. Evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used. (CCSS: SL.11-12.3)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do people benefit from listening to the perspectives of others?
  2. Why is it important to cite valid and reliable sources?
  3. When is something in life perceived as accurate and relevant to experiences, and yet wrong?
  4. Is there any fact that is forever certain?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Informed voters must "do their homework" and verify facts, premises, and claims.
  2. Asking relevant questions is a combination of skepticism and good faith.
  3. Fact-checking engines can be used to determine citations, sources, and the validity of evidence.
  4. Historians must always substantiate and prove their claims.

Nature Of:

  1. Skilled communicators are both critical listeners and effective speakers.
  2. Good communicators evaluate other speakers' points of view, biases, and evidence.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Tenth Grade
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Content that is gathered carefully and organized well successfully influences an audience

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task. (CCSS: SL.9-10.4)
  2. Select organizational patterns and structures and choose precise vocabulary and rhetorical devices
  3. Make decisions about how to establish credibility and enhance appeal to the audience
  4. Rehearse the presentation to gain fluency, to adjust tone and modulate volume for emphasis, and to develop poise
  5. Use feedback to evaluate and revise the presentation

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What are some messages that may be conveyed using only nonverbal techniques?
  2. Why is it important for communicators to organize their thinking when trying to support a position?
  3. How can strong preparation be a useful tool in defending a position or trying to persuade others?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Authors use relevant examples from knowledge and experience to support main ideas.
  2. The legal system has people who gather and organize evidence to present to a jury (such as lawyers, legal assistants, and criminal investigators).
  3. Databases can categorize and scaffold content searches.
  4. Electronic journaling tools can be used for reflection.

Nature Of:

  1. Skilled communicators can speak to both sides of an issue because they look at topics from multiple perspectives.
  2. Good presenters automatically prioritize the big idea and its supporting evidence.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Effectively operating in small and large groups to accomplish a goal requires active listening

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. (CCSS: SL.9-10.1)
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas. (CCSS: SL.9-10.1a)
    • Support others in discussions, activities, and presentations through active listening
    • Listen actively in groups to accomplish a goal
    • Contribute effectively in both small and large groups to collaboratively accomplish a goal
    • Choose specific words for intended effect on particular audiences
    • Facilitate (or lead) a group by developing an agenda designed to accomplish a specified goal
    • Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions. (CCSS: SL.9-10.1b)
    • Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented. (CCSS: SL.9-10.1c)
  2. Evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence. (CCSS: SL.9-10.3)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why is being able to effectively function in a collaborative group a necessary skill?
  2. What criteria could be used to measure the effectiveness of a group?
  3. What are effective ways to monitor group skills and individual contributions?
  4. How can individuals monitor their own group's progress and effectiveness?

Relevance & Application:

  1. When working together, each member contributes to the larger outcome. (For example, airline personnel work collaboratively to safely transport thousands of people daily. The hospitality industry demands collaborative skills and active listening to provide an enjoyable experience for its patrons.)
  2. Online shared workspaces host opportunities to operate in an effective group setting.
  3. Professional sports teams demand active listening, shared leadership, instant decision-making, and strategic subordinate roles.

Nature Of:

  1. Skilled communicators are aware of their own actions, which helps them to determine when leadership is needed and when they need to be more of a support person to others.
  2. Skilled communicators study people in their group and listen for warning signs that perhaps people are not being heard. When they recognize the inequity, they ask, "What do you think?"

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Ninth Grade
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Oral presentations require effective preparation strategies

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.(CCSS: SL.9-10.6)
  2. Use verbal and nonverbal techniques to communicate information
  3. Define a position and select evidence to support that position
  4. Develop a well-organized presentation to defend a position
  5. Use effective audience and oral delivery skills to persuade an audience
  6. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (CCSS: SL.9-10.5)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do different purposes and audiences affect the preparation content and language of presentation?
  2. How do presenters know if an audience is interested in their topic?
  3. How can nonverbal cues change the intent of a presentation?
  4. How do presenters know when they are ready to deliver a presentation?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Humor, poise, and intuition give society alternative ways to access information.
  2. Politicians seek to persuade voters by offering compelling arguments developed through well-organized speech writing.
  3. Actors research and study the history of their character to present an authentic portrayal.
  4. Media technologies offer opportunities for viewing presentations on a variety of topics and observing various styles.
  5. Electronic presentation tools can be used to enhance oral presentation.

Nature Of:

  1. Skilled communicators use nonverbal techniques in their presentations to help them convey a particular message.
  2. Effective communicators understand the necessity for developing presentations with sequential and relevant information for a particular audience.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Listening critically to comprehend a speaker's message requires mental and physical strategies to direct and maintain attention

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. (CCSS: SL.9-10.1)
    • Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed. (CCSS: SL.9-10.1b)
  2. Follow the speaker's arguments as they develop; take notes when appropriate
  3. Give verbal and nonverbal feedback to the speaker
  4. Ask clarifying questions
  5. Evaluate arguments and evidence
  6. Explain how variables such as background knowledge, experiences, values, and beliefs can affect communication
  7. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source. (CCSS: SL.9-10.2)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does a speaker's personal history affect his point of view?
  2. What is appropriate feedback?
  3. What is inappropriate feedback?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Taking notes when listening to a speaker helps audience members remember what was said.
  2. Providing feedback is an important skill that is used in many professional settings (such as a doctor's office or courtroom, or in construction or engineering environments).
  3. Utilize electronic feedback tools for immediate feedback.
  4. Use library databases to evaluate evidence and arguments.

Nature Of:

  1. Skilled listeners understand the context of a presenter's point of view.
  2. Skilled listeners use their own experiences to relate to a speaker's topic.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Communication skills and interviewing techniques are required to gather information and to develop and deliver oral presentations

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly. (CCSS: SL.8.1)
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion. (CCSS: SL.8.1a)
    • Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed. (CCSS: SL.8.1b)
    • Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others' questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas. (CCSS: SL.8.1c)
    • Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented. (CCSS: SL.8.1d)
    • Identify a central idea and prepare and ask relevant interview questions for researching and developing ideas further
    • Evaluate the effectiveness of the techniques used and information gained from the interview
    • Give a planned oral presentation to a specific audience for an intended purpose
    • Demonstrate appropriate verbal and nonverbal delivery techniques (clear enunciation, gesture, volume, pace, use of visuals, and language) for intended effect
  2. Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation. (CCSS: SL.8.2)
  3. Delineate a speaker's argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced. (CCSS: SL.8.3)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do delivery techniques change in relation to audience purpose or content?
  2. What makes a good interview?
  3. How do presenters determine what information is relevant when preparing a report or presentation?
  4. How do speakers know if an audience is actively engaged in a presentation?

Relevance & Application:

  1. When hiring, a supervisor must develop and use effective interview techniques to select the proper candidate.
  2. Public speakers can study theatre arts to improve their presentation skills.
  3. Audio and video recording technologies assist in studying interview footage to assimilate relevant information.
  4. Electronic presentation tools can be used to enhance oral presentations.
  5. Long distance interviews can be conducted electronically.

Nature Of:

  1. Skilled communicators use dialogue to understand and to be understood, with consideration for self and others.
  2. Skilled communicators must be open to the ideas of others.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. A variety of response strategies clarifies meaning or messages

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (CCSS: SL.8.4)
  2. Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. (CCSS: SL.8.5)
  3. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (CCSS: SL.8.6)
  4. Paraphrase speaker's meaning
  5. Ask questions to clarify inferences

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do people develop good listening skills?
  2. How do audience members determine the meaning of nonverbal cues?
  3. Why is it important to understand the speaker's background?
  4. How is asking questions a useful strategy in learning?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Public speakers use appropriate gestures, facial expressions, posture, and body language in a variety of situations (such as resolving conflicts, negotiating, and presenting reports).
  2. Professionals use oral communication skills to foster collaboration. For example, jury members are required to determine if a witness is telling the truth; business executives work in teams to complete a project on time.
  3. Computer animation technologies portray the nonverbal intent of a character.
  4. Use electronic tools, such as word mapping techniques, to analyze a speaker's meaning.

Nature Of:

  1. Skilled listeners recognize the contributions of others.
  2. Skilled listeners listen and ask good questions.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Seventh Grade
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Formal presentations require preparation and effective delivery

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (CCSS: SL.7.4)
  2. Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points. (CCSS: SL.7.5)
  3. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (CCSS: SL.7.6)
  4. Prepare for audience and purpose by ensuring proper length of presentation, suitable mode of dress, appropriate topic, and engaging content
  5. Implement strategies to rehearse presentation (such as memorizing key phrases, creating note cards, practicing with friends, etc.)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What background knowledge can presenters apply to their research?
  2. Why is it important to use good research strategies when finding information on a topic?
  3. How do I know if a source is trustworthy?
  4. How does the lack of a component (introduction, main idea, supporting details, and conclusion) change the intent of a presentation?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Learning to paraphrase is a skill that is used daily when summarizing.
  2. Parents often ensure the well-being of their children by asking who, what, when, where, why, and how questions.
  3. Online resources offer access to a variety of primary and secondary resources.
  4. Electronic presentation tools can enhance oral presentations.
  5. Online resources can be used to offer examples of quality presentations.

Nature Of:

  1. Skilled communicators use a variety of ways to present research, which continues to build their intellectual fluency.
  2. Skilled communicators thoroughly review their research findings before presenting to an audience.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Small and large group discussions rely on active listening and the effective contributions of all participants

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly. (CCSS: SL.7.1)
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion. (CCSS: SL.7.1a)
    • Follow rules for collegial discussions, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed. (CCSS: SL.7.1b)
    • Pose questions that elicit elaboration and respond to others' questions and comments with relevant observations and ideas that bring the discussion back on topic as needed. (CCSS: SL.7.1c)
    • Acknowledge new information expressed by others and, when warranted, modify their own views. (CCSS: SL.7.1d)
  2. Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study. (CCSS: SL.7.2)
  3. Delineate a speaker's argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. (CCSS: SL.7.3)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What makes an effective discussion?
  2. How can everyone contribute without a few people dominating the discussion?
  3. What strategies do effective communicators use to involve other people in the discussion?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Journalists summarize complex issues for the general public.
  2. Political representatives integrate the needs and wants of a community into new policy recommendations.
  3. Real-time feedback technologies rely on the active participation of all members to have a successful discussion.
  4. Musical ensembles require the cooperation of all players to produce the desired sound.

Nature Of:

  1. Skilled communicators demonstrate a balance between listening and sharing.
  2. Skilled listeners recognize that others have important ideas.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Sixth Grade
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Successful group discussions require planning and participation by all

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (CCSS: SL.6.4)
  2. Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information. (CCSS: SL.6.5)
  3. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (CCSS: SL.6.6)
  4. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly. (CCSS: SL.6.1)
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion. (CCSS: SL.6.1a)
    • Follow rules for collegial discussions, set specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed. (CCSS: SL.6.1b)
    • Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion. (CCSS: SL.6.1c)
    • Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through reflection and paraphrasing. (CCSS: SL.6.1d)
  5. Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study. (CCSS: SL.6.2)
  6. Delineate a speaker's argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not. (CCSS: SL.6.3)
  7. Use evidence to develop credibility (such as citing textual evidence to support opinions)
  8. Recognize the difference between informal and formal language and make choices appropriate for group purposes

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What happens when members of a group don't listen to one another?
  2. How do members of a group know if they are using credible sources?
  3. What active listening strategies can individuals use while working in a group?
  4. Why is it important for people to wait their turn before providing an opinion or giving feedback?
  5. What tools can be used in a small group to organize the discussion?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Contributing ideas and listening respectfully lead to greater buy-in and give society a larger understanding of views of group members. (Scientists collect seemingly unrelated facts and discoveries and put them together to formulate a hypothesis. Coaches develop game plans that require the players to actively listen and participate to be successful.)
  2. The Internet offers search engines and library databases that help users identify credible sources.

Nature Of:

  1. Collaboration expands thinking and understanding by integration of others' ideas and perspectives.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Effective communication requires speakers to express an opinion, provide information, describe a process, and persuade an audience

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Describe a process and persuade an audience
    • Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes. (CCSS: SL.5.4)
    • Use appropriate eye contact and speak clearly at an understandable pace. (CCSS: SL.5.4)
  2. Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, sound) and visual displays in presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes. (CCSS: SL.5.5)
  3. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks. (CCSS: SL.5.6)
  4. Adapt language as appropriate to purpose: to persuade, explain/provide information, or express an opinion.

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do presenters make themselves clear when presenting ideas to others?
  2. How do presenters make a good impression when speaking with others?
  3. When presenters want to persuade audience members, what is important for them to remember?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Performing artists rehearse to perfect a performance before presenting to an audience.
  2. Video-recording and then viewing a presentation can help speakers understand what they do well and what they need to improve.
  3. Advertising agencies develop media campaigns (for TV, radio, the Internet, newspapers, and magazines) to persuade people to buy their products.
  4. Online resources offer samples of language use from diverse backgrounds.
  5. Webinars allow sharing among and between a broader audience.

Nature Of:

  1. Effective communicators can present a topic they know well and take the opposing side of an issue.
  2. Skilled presenters plan and prepare for the delivery of a presentation.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Listening strategies are techniques that contribute to understanding different situations and serving different purposes

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Listen to other's ideas and form their own opinions
  2. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly. (CCSS: SL.5.1)
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. (CCSS: SL.5.1a)
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles. (CCSS: SL.5.1b)
    • Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others. (CCSS: SL.5.1c)
    • Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions. (CCSS: SL.5.1d)
  3. Model a variety of active listening strategies (eye contact, note taking, questioning, formulating clarifying questions)
    • Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. (CCSS: SL.5.2)
  4. Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence. (CCSS: SL.5.3)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How is eye contact used to persuade others who are listening?
  2. When is it important to use volume as a tool in communication?
  3. Why is it difficult to accept someone else's point of view?
  4. What can speakers do to make people want to listen to what they have to say?
  5. How does body language tell a speaker that he/she is having the desired effect on the audience?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Using precise language increases clarity in communication. (A mediator listens to both sides of an argument and then gives a recommendation to solve the problem.)
  2. Utilizing online presentation tools engages audiences from across the world.
  3. Acknowledging, both verbally and in writing, what has been heard is critical when learning new information.

Nature Of:

  1. Good listeners seek to understand before they respond.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fourth Grade
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. A clear communication plan is necessary to effectively deliver and receive information

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly. (CCSS: SL.4.1)
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. (CCSS: SL.4.1a)
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles. (CCSS: SL.4.1b)
    • Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others. (CCSS: SL.4.1c)
    • Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion. (CCSS: SL.4.1d)
  2. Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. (CCSS: SL.4.2)
  3. Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points. (CCSS: SL.4.3)
  4. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace. (CCSS: SL.4.4)
  5. Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes. (CCSS: SL.4.5)
  6. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (CCSS: SL.4.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why is important to listen to all members in a group before making a decision about an issue or problem?
  2. What are some important things to do when presenting ideas to a group?
  3. Why is paraphrasing someone else's thinking important before sharing other opinions?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Learning how to listen and support ideas with others is a life skill (Businesses of all sizes create communication plans so all employees are kept informed and know how and where to offer their opinion.)
  2. Interacting with others by sharing knowledge, ideas, stories, and interests builds positive relationships. For example, when planning a school festival students, parents, and teachers work together to develop ideas and plan the work.
  3. Using databases to organize information about and audience can improve a meeting.

Nature Of:

  1. Good communicators acknowledge the ideas of others.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Third Grade
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Oral communication is used both informally and formally

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace. (CCSS: SL.3.4)
  2. Distinguish different levels of formality
  3. Speak clearly, using appropriate volume and pitch for the purpose and audience
  4. Select and organize ideas sequentially or around major points of information that relate to the formality of the audience
  5. Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details. (CCSS: SL.3.5)
  6. Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (CCSS: SL.3.6)
  7. Use grammatically correct language for the audience and specific vocabulary to communicate ideas and supporting details

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Do children talk differently to their friends than to their teachers? Why?
  2. Could presenters speak passionately about a topic if their back was turned to the audience?
  3. When people talk to someone who speaks a different language, how do they know that the person is happy, sad, scared, or mad?
  4. Why is it important to speak clearly with appropriate volume and pitch?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Participate in group discussions around a topic of interest. (Actors in a group scene must communicate the appropriate thoughts and feelings for the audience to understand their intent.)
  2. Speak at a rate and volume others can understand. (Television reporters demonstrate expertise in clearly presenting to an audience.)
  3. Use correct grammatical structures to clearly express new ideas to a group.
  4. Collaborate with a group for a presentation (such as a book report or dramatic reading).
  5. Electronic tools visual mapping tools can be used to organize ideas.

Nature Of:

  1. Good communicators make changes to their presentations based on the interests of different audiences.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Successful group activities need the cooperation of everyone

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly. (CCSS: SL 3.1)
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. (CCSS: SL.3.1a)
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion). (CCSS: SL.3.1b)
    • Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others. (CCSS: SL.3.1c)
    • Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion. (CCSS: SL.3.1d)
    • Use eye contact, volume, and tone appropriate to audience and purpose
    • Use different types of complete sentences to share information, give directions, or request information
  2. Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. (CCSS: SL 3.2)
  3. Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail. (CCSS: SL 3.3)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What are the different kinds of roles people have when working in a group?
  2. Do rules help people or hold them back?
  3. What characteristics do good group leaders have?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Express and support ideas with others. (Filmmakers select the most exciting and meaningful scenes from a movie to use in trailers.)
  2. Drivers need to follow the rules of the road to keep themselves and others safe.
  3. Interact with others by sharing knowledge, stories, and interests to build positive relationships. (Dancers in an ensemble work together to present a dance performance for others to enjoy.)
  4. Online shared workspaces can be used to enhance collaboration.

Nature Of:

  1. Good communicators work collaboratively with others to have the desired effect on their audience.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Second Grade
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Discussions contribute and expand on the ideas of self and others

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences. (CCSS: SL.2.4)
  2. Contribute knowledge to a small group or class discussion to develop a topic
  3. Maintain focus on the topic
  4. Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings. (CCSS: SL.2.5)
  5. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (CCSS: SL.2.6)
  6. Use content-specific vocabulary to ask questions and provide information

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why is it important to use precise vocabulary in communication?
  2. How do people remember new words and their mean?
  3. How do people connect new words to things that are important to them?
  4. What is the most important thing to do to ensure people understand a presentation?

Relevance & Application:

  1. The use of precise language is important when communicating with others to clearly express an idea.
  2. Online dictionary resources offer new ways to expand vocabulary (such as personal word bank, word wall, picture dictionary, or glossary).
  3. Music writers (composers) and musical performers work together to create new songs and exciting performances.
  4. Use electronic collaboration tools to contribute to the group goal.

Nature Of:

  1. Good communicators choose their words carefully.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. New information can be learned and better dialogue created by listening actively

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. (CCSS: SL.2.1)
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion). (CCSS: SL.2.1a)
    • Build on others' talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others. (CCSS: SL.2.1b)
    • Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion. (CCSS: SL.2.1c)
  2. Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media. (CCSS: SL.2.2)
  3. Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. (CCSS: SL.2.3)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Do people learn more by talking or listening? Why?
  2. How do people respond to ideas that are unfair?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Communicators check their personal thinking to ensure other points of view are considered fairly.
  2. Listeners use background knowledge to answer questions before asking others.
  3. Video game designers create a variety of options to allow the players to have choices.
  4. Doctors listen to their patients and use their own knowledge of medicine to make a diagnosis.
  5. Use electronic tools to provide feedback.

Nature Of:

  1. Good listeners make new discoveries by using their own knowledge along with information they hear from others.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: First Grade
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Multiple strategies develop and expand oral vocabulary

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly. (CCSS: SL.1.4)
  2. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings. (CCSS: SL.1.)
  3. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation. (CCSS: SL.1.6)
  4. Give and follow simple two-step directions.

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why is it important to learn new words?
  2. How is the meaning of a word demonstrated without speaking?
  3. How do presenters decide which words to use when they speak?
  4. What is the value of using different words in writing?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Choose specific words to make communication clearer. (Storytellers select their words very carefully to express a thought or feeling clearly to the audience or reader.)
  2. Use words to orally describe actions, people, places, things, and ideas. (Visual artists demonstrate the ability to express many words through a work of art. A picture is worth a thousand words.)
  3. Increase exposure to words for use in speaking and writing.
  4. Library database products can provide exposure to oral and written vocabulary.
  5. Electronic drawing tools can be used to illustrate vocabulary.

Nature Of:

  1. Good communicators use a variety of words when speaking and writing to demonstrate their understanding of a topic.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Verbal and nonverbal language is used to express and receive information

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. (CCSS: SL.1.1)
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion). (CCSS: SL.1.1a)
    • Build on others' talk in conversations by responding to the comments of others through multiple exchanges. (CCSS: SL.1.1b)
    • Ask questions to clear up any confusion about the topics and texts under discussion. (CCSS: SL.1.1c)
  2. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media. (CCSS: SL.1.2)
  3. Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to gather additional information or clarify something that is not understood. (CCSS: SL.1.3)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What does it mean to communicate courteously in conversations?
  2. How can students ask for something without speaking out in class?
  3. Why is it important for students to wait their turn before speaking?

Relevance & Application:

  1. By listening, responding to others' ideas, and working together people can solve problems together that may not have been solved by an individual.
  2. A variety of technology tools help people clarify a speaker's or author's meaning when listening or reading.

Nature Of:

  1. Communicators can ask for things they need without being disruptive.
  2. Communicators know how to communicate effectively with peers, teachers, and family members.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Identifying and manipulating phonemes in spoken words allow people to understand the meaning of speech

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes). (CCSS: RF.1.2)
    • Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words. (CCSS: RF.1.2a)
    • Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends. (CCSS: RF.1.2b)
    • Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words. (CCSS: RF.1.2c)
    • Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes). (CCSS: RF.1.2d)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why are phonemes (speech sounds) important?
  2. What is the difference between phonemes (speech sounds) and other sounds?
  3. How would English sound if we used letter sounds the same in every word?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Poets blend words and phrases together to produce poems that sound like feelings.
  2. Audio and digital technologies assist students in identifying the differences among types of sounds.
  3. When learning a new language, students must learn how that language uses speech sounds before they can speak fluently.

Nature Of:

  1. Phonological and phonemic awareness prepares the brain for reading and spelling.
  2. The ability to notice and manipulate phonemes orally is essential for successful reading development.
  3. Good speakers notice and manipulate phonemes to make their presentation interesting and understandable to their audience.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Kindergarten
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Oral communication skills are built within a language-rich environment

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Describe familiar people, places, things, and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional detail. (CCSS: SL.K.4)
  2. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail. (CCSS: SL.K.5)
  3. Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly. (CCSS: SL.K.6)
  4. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent. (CCSS: L.K.5a)
  5. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms). (CCSS: L.K.5b)
  6. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at school that are colorful). (CCSS: L.K.5c)
  7. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut, prance) by acting out the meanings. (CCSS: L.K.5d)
  8. Express words and word meanings as encountered in books and conversation
  9. Use new vocabulary that is directly taught through reading, speaking, and listening
  10. Relate new vocabulary to prior knowledge

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why are the sounds and letters in words important?
  2. Why is it important to learn new words and build speaking vocabularies?
  3. When talking to a partner, why is important to speak clearly and use words the person understands?
  4. How would the world be different if people didn't speak to each other?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Provide opportunities and tools for students to see and use written language for a variety of purposes, drawing attention to specific letters and words. (Early math concepts require a student to identify and sort common shapes and identify simple patterns.)
  2. Electronic sources provide a tool for displaying word and letters.
  3. Animation can enhance story telling.

Nature Of:

  1. Good communicators seek out opportunities to learn and use new words that build and enhance their oral language skills.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Communication relies on effective verbal and nonverbal skills

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. (CCSS: SL.K.1)
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others and taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion). (CCSS: SL.K.1a)
    • Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges. (CCSS: SL.K.1b)
  2. Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood. (CCSS: SL.K.2)
  3. Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood. (CCSS: SL.K.3)
  4. Listen with comprehension to follow two-step directions.
  5. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts. (CCSS: L.K.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What are proper ways for people to ask for something they need?
  2. Why is it important for people to wait their turn before speaking?
  3. What does it mean to be a good listener?

Relevance & Application:

  1. When asking for directions it is important to ask clarifying questions to avoid getting lost.
  2. Speaking politely to customers and acknowledging their concerns is important to people who work in stores and restaurants.

Nature Of:

  1. Good communicators are courteous and speak with respect for others.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Vocal sounds produce words and meaning to create early knowledge of phonemic awareness

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Identify and create rhyming words
  2. Identify and create alliterations
  3. Identify words orally according to shared beginning or ending sounds
  4. Blend sounds orally to make one-syllable words
  5. Segment one-syllable words into sounds
  6. Segment spoken words into onset (initial consonant sounds) and rime (vowel to end of syllable)
  7. Identify the initial, medial, and final phoneme (speech sound) of spoken words

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why are phonemes (speech sounds) important?
  2. What is the difference between phonemes (speech sounds) and other sounds?
  3. Could people communicate well if they could only use five words?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Identifying differences between common sounds in the home is necessary for safety and everyday living (such as the phone and doorbell, smoke alarm and kitchen timer).
  2. Recorded sources of sample sounds are used to help clarify the spoken word.

Nature Of:

  1. The ability to segment and blend phonemes facilitates spelling and decoding.
  2. Phonological and phonemic awareness prepares the brain for reading and spelling.
  3. The ability to notice and manipulate phonemes orally is essential for successful reading development.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Preschool
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Conceptual understanding conveyed through vocabulary words can occur using a variety of modalities

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Identify and sort common objects, events, pictures, words, colors, shapes, and textures into various classifications
  2. Begin to identify and use special concepts (first/last, over/under, etc.)
  3. Demonstrate use of vocabulary in oral language to express ideas and events
  4. Begin to understand that everyday words such as "cold" relate to extended vocabulary words such as "chilly"

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What are the names of different people (teacher, principal, assistant, classmate, lunch lady) in the school?
  2. What are the names of people in the community, friends, and relatives?
  3. How many words do you know that have an opposite?
  4. What is your favorite kind of story? One you know already or one you make up? Why?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Develop vocabulary to effectively express feelings and thoughts, describe experiences, interact with others, and communicate their needs. (In PE or dance class, it is important to listen to directional instructions (first/last, over/under). Visual artists must understand the functions of color, shape, and texture when creating a piece of artwork.)
  2. Electronic mapping tools can be used in sorting and organizing ideas.

Nature Of:

  1. Good communicators use words of time and position, including first, second, next, on, under, beside, and over, to give directions orally.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Listening and comprehension skills are required to be clearly understood

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use language to express ideas in complete sentences (with support of sentence stems as needed)
  2. Recite songs, poems, and stories with repeated rhyme
  3. Listen with comprehension, and follow two-step directions
  4. Remember spoken information for a short period of time

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does asking questions help people understand the world?
  2. Can people sing a story?
  3. How do people remember things?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Rhythm patterns using music or dance facilitate memorization.
  2. Emergency workers rely on citizens following directions so everyone remains safe.
  3. Digital media allows students to organize their thoughts into pictures.

Nature Of:

  1. People communicate to understand and to be understood.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Early knowledge of phonemic awareness is the building block of understanding language

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Recognize patterns of sounds in songs, storytelling, and poetry
  2. Understand that words are made up of one or more syllables
  3. Recognize rhyming words and alliterations
  4. Demonstrate understanding of initial sounds in words (such as mop begins with the /m/ sound)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why is important to recognize patterns in oral language?
  2. Why is it important to hear sounds in words?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Song lyrics using meter and rhyme use patterns of words to create music.
  2. Sounds of words are highlighted and exaggerated for better understanding in video prepared games and shows

Nature Of:

  1. The ability to segment and blend phonemes facilitates spelling and decoding.
  2. Phonological and phonemic awareness prepares the brain for reading and spelling.
  3. The ability to notice and manipulate phonemes orally is essential for successful reading development.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Twelfth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Literary criticism of complex texts requires the use of analysis, interpretive, and evaluative strategies

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Analyze how an author's choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact. (CCSS: RL.11-12.5)
  2. Describe and contrast characteristics of specific literary movements and perspectives
  3. Evaluate the influence of historical context on the form, style, and point of view of a written work
  4. Analyze and relate a literary work to source documents of its literary period or to critical perspectives
  5. Evaluate how literary components impact meaning (such as tone, symbolism, irony, extended metaphor, satire, hyperbole)
  6. Demonstrate knowledge of classical foundational works of world literature
  7. By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RL.11-12.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What specific techniques in a classic text elicit historic attention or appreciation? Why?
  2. What specific techniques in a modern text deserve critical attention or appreciation? Why?
  3. What strategies are most useful when reading, understanding, and making personal connections to literary texts?
  4. Is literary criticism based on skepticism or something else?
  5. How can students compare their family or individual beliefs to those of the historical period they are currently studying?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Interpretation of text, supported by citing evidence, fosters reading skills and coherent thinking, speaking, and writing, which are priority skills for the workplace and postsecondary settings.
  2. Book reviewers and editors who make their living commenting and advancing the body of good reading interpret and judge new writing so that we all enjoy high-quality magazines, books, and online reading.
  3. Screen writers and theatre writers use symbolism, hyperbole, and satire to make audiences laugh, think, or display feelings.

Nature Of:

  1. Strong readers critically think about what they read and apply background knowledge.
  2. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 11-12. (CCSS: RST.11-12.1-10)
  3. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 11-12. (CCSS: RH.11-12.1-10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Interpreting and evaluating complex informational texts require the understanding of rhetoric, critical reading, and analysis skills

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness or beauty of the text. (CCSS: RI.11-12.6)
  2. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem. (CCSS: RI.11-12.7)
  3. Use reading and note-taking strategies (outlining, mapping systems, skimming, scanning, key word search) to organize information and make connections within and across informational texts
  4. Use semantic cues, signal words, and transitions to identify text structures (such as critique, proposition/support, inductive/deductive) and to summarize central ideas and supporting details
  5. Obtain and use information from text and text features (index, bold or italicized text, subheadings, graphics) to answer questions, perform specific tasks, or identify and solve problems
  6. Explain and interpret the visual components supporting the text (maps, complex tables and diagrams, and transitional devices, such as use of white space)
  7. By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RI.11-12.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do different genres, formats, and text features used in informational text help readers understand the author's purpose?
  2. What gives the written word its power?
  3. How do rhetorical devices and logic impact the reader?
  4. What is the role of logic in informational texts?
  5. What are rhetorical devices that can destroy a valuable piece of substantive text?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Interpretation of text, supported by citing evidence, fosters reading skills and coherent thinking, speaking, and writing, which are priority skills for the workplace and postsecondary settings.
  2. Civil engineers interpret legislative and legal terms as they construct bridges, roads, and reservoirs.

Nature Of:

  1. Critical readers ask questions in their mind as they read.
  2. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 11-12. (CCSS: RST.11-12.1-10)
  3. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 11-12. (CCSS: RH.11-12.1-10)

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eleventh Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Complex literary texts require critical reading approaches to effectively interpret and evaluate meaning

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain. (CCSS: RL.11-12.1)
    • Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text. (CCSS: RL.11-12.2)
    • Analyze the impact of the author's choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed). (CCSS: RL.11-12.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.) (CCSS: RL.11-12.4)
    • Analyze a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement). (CCSS: RL.11-12.6)
    • Explain the influence of historical context on the form, style, and point of view of a written work
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.) (CCSS: RL.11-12.7)
    • Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics. (CCSS: RL.11-12.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (CCSS: RL.11-12.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Which character from the current text do you most identify with and why?
  2. Why did the author choose this particular setting for this story?
  3. How might this story have been different with another setting?
  4. How does living in the 18th and 19th centuries compare with life in the 21st century?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Capturing the stories and culture of ancestors through American literature is the role of most periodical writers, historians, and sports writers.
  2. Exposure to diverse authors and genres of literature enhances readers' perspectives.
  3. Online book clubs, blog sites, and storytellers depend on ever better literary text strategies to find and share meaning in stories.
  4. Electronic spreadsheets and online storyboarding are effective tools for comparing and contrasting, tone, metaphor and theme development.

Nature Of:

  1. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 11-12. (CCSS: RST.11-12.1-10)
  2. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 11-12. (CCSS: RH.11-12.1-10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Ideas synthesized from informational texts serve a specific purpose

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain. (CCSS: RI.11-12.1)
    • Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text. (CCSS: RI.11-12.2)
    • Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text. (CCSS: RI.11-12.3)
    • Designate a purpose for reading expository texts and use new learning to complete a specific task (such as convince an audience, shape a personal opinion or decision, or perform an activity)
    • Predict the impact an informational text will have on an audience and justify the prediction
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10). (CCSS: RI.11-12.4)
    • Use text features and graphical representations to complement comprehension and enhance critical analysis of a text
    • Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging. (CCSS: RI.11-12.5)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses). (CCSS: RI.11-12.8)
    • Analyze seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century foundational U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (including The Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address) for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features. (CCSS: RI.11-12.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (CCSS: RI.11-12.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Does a periodical's headline affect an argument differently?
  2. When people's ideas are challenged, does their ego or instinct respond first?
  3. What is the greatest authoritative position from which to write for a specific purpose?
  4. Describe an author's belief that you can cite from the text. Why do you suppose the author holds that belief? Do you share that same belief? Why or why not?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Pharmacists require the ability to compare and synthesize ideas from informational texts to prevent unnecessary deaths.
  2. Mechanics use informational texts when making repairs to assess the sufficiency of a specific "fixing" function.
  3. Air quality commissioners depend and must discern many research texts to make difficult and specific decisions.
  4. Trusted Web sites are used to seek out visual and multimedia representations of printed text to enhance understanding.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers use relevant background knowledge and consistently apply it to what they are reading to better facilitate drawing conclusions and increase comprehensibility of the text.
  2. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 11-12. (CCSS: RST.11-12.1-10)
  3. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 11-12. (CCSS: RH.11-12.1-10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Knowledge of language, including syntax and grammar, influence the understanding of literary, persuasive, and informational texts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. (CCSS: L.11-12.3)
    • Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte's Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading. (CCSS: L.11-12.3a)
  2. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11-12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (CCSS: L.11-12.4)
    • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.11-12.4a)
    • Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable). (CCSS: L.11-12.4b)
    • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage. (CCSS: L.11-12.4c)
    • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). (CCSS: L.11-12.4d)
  3. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS: L.11-12.5)
    • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text. (CCSS: L.11-12.5a)
    • Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations. (CCSS: L.11-12.5b)
  4. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. (CCSS: L.11-12.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does having a sound knowledge of English Language aid in text comprehension of difficult text?
  2. Describe how content specific academic language is beneficial to the development of comprehension in content areas, i.e. science, social studies, and health and PE, specific vocabulary.
  3. What is the significance of being able to correctly use patterns of word changes to bring meaning to text?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Doctoral students are required to write a thesis with a dissertation. Having a sound knowledge of language, and how language functions, is a necessity to this type of work.

Nature Of:

  1. Sound readers are able to immerse into the English Language to derive and infer meaning from difficult text.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Tenth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Literary and historical influences determine the meaning of traditional and contemporary literary texts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (CCSS: RL.9-10.1)
  2. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone). (CCSS: RL.9-10.4)
  3. Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden's "Musée des Beaux Arts" and Breughel's Landscape with the Fall of Icarus). CCSS: RL.9-10.7)
  4. Evaluate the contribution to society made by traditional, classic, and contemporary works of literature that deal with similar topics and problems
  5. Relate a literary work to primary source documents of its literary period or historical setting
  6. Analyze how literary components affect meaning
  7. Explain the relationship between author's style and literary effect.
  8. By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RL.9-10.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How can multiple events in someone's life carry a particular theme?
  2. Why does an author choose to use this type of writing to make a point?
  3. After reading about the cultural (or historical) perspectives that were held by people during a specific time period, what can be generalized about these individuals, and how has this event affected life today?
  4. What is the difference between personality and the impact a culture has on writing style?
  5. Are there really a limited number of themes in the world, despite the historical story differences?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Reading news stories will give people access to what is happening in the world.
  2. When people read online articles from different newspapers, they find that certain parts of the country have different views (such as news reporting on the environment in Portland, Oregon, versus another part of the country).
  3. Foreign film writing and movie making are popular American media because universal themes translate from one culture to another.
  4. Contemporary advertising uses classic and traditional topics and problems to successfully sell goods or services.
  5. Historic perspectives such as the battle at the Alamo are generalized in cartoons, speech, writing, and sporting documents.
  6. Participating actively in online discussions that follow online news stories adds to the understanding of diverse perspectives and point of view.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers like to read multiple perspectives because it causes them to think about their own thinking (metacognition) and be clear about what they really believe.
  2. Readers are eager to learn new ideology that enhances the quality of life.
  3. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 9-10. (CCSS: RST.9-10.1-10)
  4. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 9-10. (CCSS: RH. 9-10.1-10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. The development of new ideas and concepts within informational and persuasive manuscripts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (CCSS: RI.9-10.1)
  2. Provide a response to text that expresses an insight (such as an author's perspective or the nature of conflict) or use text-based information to solve a problem not identified in the text (for example, use information from a variety of sources to provide a response to text that expresses an insight)
  3. Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person's life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account. (CCSS: RI.9-10.7)
  4. Compare the development of an idea or concept in multiple texts supported by text-based evidence
  5. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper). (CCSS: RI.9-10.4)
  6. Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington's Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt's Four Freedoms speech, King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail"), including how they address related themes and concepts. CCSS: RI.9-10.9)
  7. By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RI.9-10.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do readers organize thoughts as they read? Articulate how these thoughts are stored for future use (for example, connecting clues from Lincoln's early life to his leadership and honesty during his presidency).
  2. What is the difference between old information and old knowledge?
  3. What does it take to synthesize two different but noncompeting sources of information?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Literature captures the lives, culture and heritage of the historical past.
  2. Making the connections to the past allows people to evaluate current events with more clarity (for example, looking at the laws of slavery, electing the first black U.S. president, and understanding the irony of the fact that slaves were used to construct the White House).
  3. As people get older, they become more conscious of their beliefs and how they influence others.
  4. Online social/learning networks such as blogs and wikis allows students to communicate globally.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers are able to fluently discuss topics that have both American and world views.
  2. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 9-10. (CCSS: RST.9-10.1-10)
  3. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 9-10. (CCSS: RH. 9-10.1-10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Context, parts of speech, grammar, and word choice influence the understanding of literary, persuasive, and informational texts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9-10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (CCSS: L.9-10.4)
    • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.9-10.4a)
    • Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy). (CCSS: L.9-10.4b)
    • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology. (CCSS: L.9-10.4c)
    • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). (CCSS: L.9-10.4d)
  2. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS: L.9-10.5)
    • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text. (CCSS: L.9-10.5a)
    • Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations. (CCSS: L.9-10.5b)
  3. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. (CCSS: L.9-10.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. In the English Language, why is important to be able to distinguish between multiple word meanings?
  2. How does text context assist in figuring out the meaning of unknown words when reading difficult text?
  3. Describe the importance of being able to find the meaning of unknown words in multiple ways?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Consumers need to be able to read the difficult language in technical manuals (such as rebuilding an engine, installing a new heating system, OSHA manuals, and corporate policy manuals).
  2. The scientific process uses parallel methodology when constructing a scientific experiment: problem/hypothesis = introduction, experiment = main idea, supporting details = data, and conclusion = conclusion.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers look for word patterns when they read. Making connections to meaning is automatic.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Ninth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Increasingly complex literary elements in traditional and contemporary works of literature require scrutiny and comparison

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. (CCSS: RL.9-10.2)
  2. Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme. (CCSS: RL.9-10.3)
  3. Analyze how an author's choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise. (CCSS: RL.9-10.5)
  4. Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature. (CCSS: RL.9-10.6)
  5. Identify the characteristics that distinguish literary forms and genres
    • Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare). (CCSS: RL.9-10.9)
    • Use literary terms to describe and analyze selections
  6. By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (CCSS: RL.9-10.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does an author use a literary device to demonstrate deeper meaning for the text? Explain your thinking and cite how you came to this conclusion.
  2. How does the setting that was portrayed by the author impact the text?
  3. What character traits seemed to be conflicting with one character (or more) in the text? (For example, a character started out as a generous person and then became bitter and selfish after a disaster.)

Relevance & Application:

  1. Reading takes people's minds to places that they may not have personally experienced.
  2. Reading multiple genres exposes people's thinking beyond their community.
  3. As people prepare to become members of society, they will encounter multiple perspectives that will require judgment and scrutiny.
  4. Connecting online with students in locations read about enhance their understanding of a text.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers fluently compare and contrast story elements to build a deeper understanding of the ideology or theme of the text.
  2. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 9-10. (CCSS: RST.9-10.1-10)
  3. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 9-10. (CCSS: RH. 9-10.1-10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Increasingly complex informational texts require mature interpretation and study

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. (CCSS. RI.9-10.2)
  2. Analyze in detail how an author's ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter). (CCSS: RI.9-10.5)
  3. Evaluate clarity and accuracy of information through close text study and investigation via other sources
  4. Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them. (CCSS: RI.9-10.3)
  5. Use flexible reading and note-taking strategies (outlining, mapping systems, skimming, scanning, key word search) to organize information and make connections within and across informational texts
  6. Critique author's choice of expository, narrative, persuasive, or descriptive modes to convey a message
  7. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning. (CCSS: RI.9-10-8)
  8. By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (CCSS: RI.9-10.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does an author work to persuade readers to change their opinions?
  2. How does an author alter readers' thoughts as they read a text?
  3. What visual imagery does the author create to activate one or more of the readers' emotions?
  4. What is the difference between text that is explicitly accurate and text that is explicitly logical?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Companies and organizations like to use influential people in their advertisements to sell their products.
  2. With constant exposure to graphics and multimedia in our world, people need to be conscious of how these images influence thinking.
  3. Reading newspaper (or online blogs) editorials can affect the way in which people perceive information (mob mentality or bandwagon effect).

Nature Of:

  1. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 9-10. (CCSS: RST.9-10.1-10)
  2. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 9-10. (CCSS: RH. 9-10.1-10)

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Quality comprehension and interpretation of literary texts demand self-monitoring and self-assessment

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (CCSS: RL.8.1)
    • Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text. (CCSS: RL.8.2)
    • Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision. (CCSS: RL.8.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts. (CCSS: RL.8.4)
    • Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style. (CCSS: RL.8.5)
    • Analyze how differences in the points of view of the characters and the audience or reader (e.g., created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor. (CCSS: RL.8.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors. (CCSS: RL.8.7)
    • Use graphic organizers and note-taking formats while reading to map relationships among implied or explicit ideas or viewpoints
    • Develop and share interpretations of literary works of personal interest
    • Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new. (CCSS: RL.8.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RL.8.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What motivates you to keep reading a book?
  2. How do authors develop theme?
  3. How do authors convey mood?
  4. How do different authors approach story elements?
  5. Why does a particular literary work hold value for someone?

Relevance & Application:

  1. On a daily basis, people are confronted with multiple points of view. Analyzing viewpoints and perspectives will help them see both sides of an issue.
  2. Having the opportunity to explore a variety of authors and literature will expand personal interest and choice of reading.
  3. Dialoging with others in book clubs and via social networking sites for books such as Shelfari and Library Thing allow students to explore other points of view around literature.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers are able to connect with author's style, tone, and mood to support their own personal selections.
  2. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RST.6-8.1-10)
  3. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RH.6-8.1-10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Quality comprehension and interpretation of informational and persuasive texts demand monitoring and self-assessment

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (CCSS: RI.8.1)
    • Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text. (CCSS: RI.8.2)
    • Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories). (CCSS: RI.8.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts. (CCSS: RI.8.4)
    • Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept. (CCSS: RI.8.5)
    • Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints. (CCSS: RI.8.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea. (CCSS: RI.8.7)
    • Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced. (CCSS: RI.8.8)
    • Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation. (CCSS: RI.8.9)
    • Interpret and explain informational texts of personal interest
  4. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RI.8.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why is this author qualified to write this informational text?
  2. How do visuals convey information?
  3. How can bias influence the reader?
  4. Which texts do you connect with and why?
  5. What elements make a text more attractive to some readers than others?
  6. Why is it important to critique an author's credentials?

Relevance & Application:

  1. While reading science and social studies texts, analyze details for relevance and accuracy.
  2. When reading for information, people think about the credibility of the author to be sure that the information is current and accurate.
  3. Voters need to understand both the gist of a proposition and the details.
  4. The exponentially growing access to information of all types on the Internet make it essential for students to practice and hone skills for evaluating online information and learn how to efficiently and effectively locate reliable information sources.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers understand there may be multiple points of view on the same topic.
  2. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RST.6-8.1-10)
  3. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RH.6-8.1-10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Context, grammar, and word choice influence the understanding of literary, persuasive, and informational texts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases based on grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (CCSS: L.8.4)
    • Select and employ strategies to persist when encountering unknown or ambiguous words or difficult passages
    • Explain how authors use language to influence audience perceptions of events, people, and ideas
    • Explain how word choice and sentence structure are used to achieve specific effects (such as tone, voice, and mood)
    • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.8.4a)
    • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., precede, recede, secede). (CCSS: L.8.4b)
    • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. (CCSS: L.8.4c)
    • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). (CCSS: L.8.4d)
  2. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS: L.8.5)
    • Interpret figures of speech (e.g. verbal irony, puns) in context. (CCSS: L.8.5a)
    • Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words. (CCSS: L.8.5b)
    • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., bullheaded, willful, firm, persistent, resolute). (CCSS: L.8.5c)
  3. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. (CCSS: L.8.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How has language changed through the centuries? Is the English language still changing? If so, how does that happen?
  2. How can grammar and texting cause some conflicting points of view?
  3. How can use of dialect or jargon bias a listener? How are words misinterpreted?
  4. How does the expression "don't judge a book by its cover" apply to eighth-graders?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Columnists and blog writers have a distinctive voice, tone, and mood.
  2. Using online dictionaries and built in dictionary tools contained within subscription databases can enhance student ability to increase their vocabulary and understanding of online reading

Nature Of:

  1. People use different types of language depending on their setting and their audience.
  2. People adjust language according to the purpose of their message: In some situations, they may need more formal language to establish credibility.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Seventh Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Literary elements, characteristics, and ideas are interrelated and guide the comprehension of literary and fictional texts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (CCSS: RL.7.1)
    • Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text. (CCSS: RL.7.2)
    • Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot). (CCSS: RL.7.3)
    • Recognize the influence of setting on other narrative elements
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g., alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama. (CCSS: RL.7.4)
    • Analyze how a drama's or poem's form or structure (e.g., soliloquy, sonnet) contributes to its meaning. (CCSS: RL.7.5)
    • Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text. (CCSS: RL.7.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in a film). (CCSS: RL.7.7)
    • Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history. (CCSS: RL.7.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (CCSS: RL.7.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How would changing the setting, character, plot, or point of view affect the outcome of a story?
  2. How do authors appeal to the reader's emotions and beliefs?
  3. What makes characters come alive?
  4. What creates conflict? What resolves it?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Exposure to literary text allows readers to connect to possibilities, points of view, and opportunities in the world.
  2. Digital storytelling introduces visual and multimedia elements that can enhance student understanding of literary texts.

Nature Of:

  1. Different readers respond differently to texts due to personal attitudes and beliefs about events, ideas, and themes. Readers may or may not like a particular text and they can explain why.
  2. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RST.6-8.1-10)
  3. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RH.6-8.1-10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Informational and persuasive texts are summarized and evaluated

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (CCSS: RI.7.1)
    • Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text. (CCSS: RI.7.2)
    • Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events). (CCSS: RI.7.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone. (CCSS: RI.7.4)
    • Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas. (CCSS: RI.7.5)
    • Interpret a variety of graphical representations and connect them to information in the text
    • Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others. (CCSS: RI.7.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each medium's portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words). (CCSS: RI.7.7)
    • Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims. (CCSS: RI.7.8)
    • Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts. (CCSS: RI.7.9)
    • Organize and synthesize information from multiple sources, determining the relevance of information
  4. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (CCSS: RI.7.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does the author use language to convey his/her viewpoint? (For example, pro-slavery-the words used show a bias toward owning slaves.)
  2. How can readers distinguish between facts and an author's opinion? Why does this matter?
  3. How are multiple sources valuable when you are learning new information?

Relevance & Application:

  1. The massive amount of information on the Internet requires readers to distinguish accurate from inaccurate information.
  2. Using multiple sources is important to gather accurate information.
  3. When consumers are purchasing a product, they will be bombarded with information that must be sorted for accuracy, clarity, and organization to help guide their decisions.
  4. Sound, graphics, and multimedia combine with text to influence perception.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers think critically when they read to separate fact from opinion.
  2. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RST.6-8.1-10)
  3. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RH.6-8.1-10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Purpose, tone, and meaning in word choices influence literary, persuasive, and informational texts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 7 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (CCSS: L.7.4)
    • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.7.4a)
    • Use the tone of a passage to determine an approximate meaning of a word
    • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., belligerent, bellicose, rebel). (CCSS: L.7.4b)
    • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. (CCSS: L.7.4c)
    • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). (CCSS: L.7.4d)
    • Differentiate between primary and secondary meanings of words
  2. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. (CCCS: L.7.5)
    • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., literary, biblical, and mythological allusions) in context. (CCCS: L.7.5a)
    • Understand that language represents and constructs how readers perceive events, people, groups, and ideas; recognize positive and negative implications of language and identify how it can affect readers in different ways
    • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonym/antonym, analogy) to better understand each of the words. (CCCS: L.7.5b)
    • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., refined, respectful, polite, diplomatic, condescending). (CCCS: L.7.5c)
  3. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. (CCSS: L.7.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How is the use of the Greek root "thermo" significant in today's world?
  2. When a word has multiple meanings or pronunciations, how does a reader select the correct one? (For example, I want to contract with that person to detail my car. I hope I don't contract the flu.)
  3. What power do words have?
  4. How do people adjust the words they use in different contexts?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Prefixes from Greek and Latin are often found in words used in science and social studies books. Knowing the meaning of these roots and affixes will support strong vocabulary knowledge.
  2. People use words differently in different contexts (The word "he" is used to refer to women as well; we text people with different language than we use when we write a formal letter.)
  3. Online access to primary sources and historic newspaper collections allow one ample opportunity to apply understanding of word choice.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers infer meanings as well as understand words with multiple meanings by applying understanding of Greek and Latin roots.
  2. Readers adjust understanding when they consider historical or social contexts.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Sixth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Understanding the meaning within different types of literature depends on properly analyzing literary components

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (CCSS: RL.6.1)
    • Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. (CCSS: RL.6.2)
    • Describe how a particular story's or drama's plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution. (CCSS: RL.6.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone. (CCSS: RL.6.4)
    • Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot. (CCSS: RL.6.5)
    • Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a text. (CCSS: RL.6.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text, including contrasting what they "see" and "hear" when reading the text to what they perceive when they listen or watch. (CCSS: RL.6.7)
    • Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics. (CCSS: RL.6.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (CCSS: RL.6.10)
  5. Use different kinds of questions to clarify and extend comprehension
  6. Identify how the author uses dialogue and specific word choice to achieve an effect

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does understanding the author's purpose help readers comprehend the text?
  2. How do specific words help readers visualize a scene? How does understanding the author's word choice contribute to imagery?
  3. How do different characters represent different points of view?

Relevance & Application:

  1. When readers become aware of how an author writes, they can increase their own sentence fluency when they are writing. (Comic books are creative genres that use dialogue, mood, and setting to entertain or make a point.)
  2. Readers choose literary texts based on author's style, personal connections, desire to expand their world view, and interest.
  3. Sometimes one can access authors online via tools such as Skype, Facebook, and blogs to gain insight into the writer's purpose.

Nature Of:

  1. When readers pay attention to how an author uses language, they increase their reading fluency and comprehension.
  2. Readers use the same skills they have gleaned from some of their favorite authors when they write.
  3. Readers who analyze characters' responses to different situations can respond more flexibly to their own situations.
  4. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RST.6-8.1-10)
  5. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RH.6-8.1-10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Organizing structure to understand and analyze factual information

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (CCSS: RI.6.1)
    • Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. (CCSS: RI.6.2)
    • Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes). (CCSS: RI.6.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings. (CCSS: RI.6.4)
    • Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas. (CCSS: RI.6.5)
    • Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text. (CCSS: RI.6.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue. (CCSS: RI.6.7)
    • Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not. (CCSS: RI.6.8)
    • Compare and contrast one author's presentation of events with that of another (e.g., a memoir written by and a biography on the same person). (CCSS: RI.6.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (CCSS: RI.6.10)
  5. Generate questions, make/confirm/adjust predictions, make inferences, and draw conclusions based on text structures
  6. Use information from text and text features (such as timeline, diagram, captions) to answer questions or perform specific tasks

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do text structures affect our understanding of various texts?
  2. How do authors use text features to highlight information?
  3. How are conclusions different from evaluations?
  4. How can an author's perspective inform readers or persuade the readers to change their thinking?

Relevance & Application:

  1. All events have a cause and effect (when a sports team loses playoff games, when an adult can't read, when students don't study for a test).
  2. Drawing conclusions supports thinking when making decisions (completing a science experiment, deciding what kind of car to buy, choosing a college to attend).
  3. Readers need to be aware of persuasive techniques that can influence their decisions (magazine ads about cosmetics, smoking, and alcohol).
  4. Organizational structures of online text are non-linear and very different from print text, requiring understanding and skill to achieve comprehension.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers use text features as a source for finding information.
  2. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RST.6-8.1-10)
  3. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: RH.6-8.1-10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Word meanings are determined by how they are designed and how they are used in context

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (CCSS: L.6.4)
    • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.6.4a)
    • Make connections back to previous sentences and ideas to resolve problems in comprehension
    • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible). (CCSS: L.6.4b)
    • Employ synonyms or antonyms gleaned from a passage to provide an approximate meaning of a word
    • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. (CCSS: L.6.4c)
    • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). (CCSS: L.6.4d)
  2. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS: L.6.5)
    • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context. (CCSS: L.6.5a)
    • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category) to better understand each of the words. (CCSS: L.6.5b)
    • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, unwasteful, thrifty). (CCSS: L.6.5c)
  3. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. (CCSS: L.6.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does knowledge of roots and affixes help determine the meaning of unknown words?
  2. Where can readers find evidence of affixes and how they are used to convey meaning?
  3. How does the larger context help readers understand confusing words or ideas?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Readers apply knowledge of roots and affixes to help determine the meanings of unfamiliar words. (Doctors' and nurses read medical books and journals, scientists read research reports and scientific studies.)
  2. Researchers use electronic resources to find information on unfamiliar topics or to find out more information.
  3. Hypertext and quick-search features in Web sites and online databases can help one quickly obtain meaning.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers transfer knowledge of roots and affixes when reading and writing unfamiliar words.
  2. Readers make intentional bridging inferences and connections between sections to resolve problems in comprehension.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Literary texts are understood and interpreted using a range of strategies

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use pre-reading strategies, such as identifying a purpose for reading, generating questions to answers while reading, previewing sections of texts and activating prior knowledge
  2. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (CCSS: RL.5.1)
    • Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text. (CCSS: RL.5.2)
    • Compare and contrast two or more character's points of view, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact). (CCSS: RL.5.3)
  3. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes. (CCSS: RL.5.4)
    • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to better understand each of the words. (CCSS: L.5.5c)
    • Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem. (CCSS: RL.5.5)
    • Describe how a narrator's or speaker's point of view influences how events are described. (CCSS: RL.5.6)
    • Locate information to support opinions, predictions, inferences, and identification of the author's message or theme
    • Compare and contrast the varieties of English (e.g. dialects, registers) used in stories, dramas, or poems. (CCSS: L.5.3b)
  4. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text (e.g., graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, poem). (CCSS: RL.5.7)
    • Compare and contrast stories in the same genre (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics. (CCSS: RL.5.9)
    • Use knowledge of literary devices (such as imagery, rhythm, foreshadowing, simple metaphors) to understand and respond to text.
  5. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4-5 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RL.5.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. When are thinking strategies important?
  2. How do readers adjust reading strategies to better understand different texts? What does it mean to be flexible?
  3. How are literary texts similar? How are they different?
  4. Why does point of view matter? How does it contribute to conflict? How can understanding point of view reduce conflict?
  5. If readers could remove inference skills from a person, what would be the consequences?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Comprehension skills help us question the author's purpose and view the world with a critical eye (using persuasion to influence our decisions and choices).
  2. Acknowledging multiple points of view help people as they meet and work with others.
  3. Foreshadowing is a skill that helps people prepare for future events because it creates a fundamental readiness.
  4. Authors use words to create pictures for the reader. As readers become aware of visual imagery, they increase their comprehension and use of metacognition.
  5. Graphical and multimedia elements of online text provide additional context and structural clues to increase comprehension.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers think about the characters and their traits and how they relate to each other.
  2. Readers recognize big ideas in literary text that reflect the human experience.
  3. Readers are always thinking about the words the author uses to paint pictures.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Ideas found in a variety of informational texts need to be compared and understood

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (CCSS: RI.5.1)
    • Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text. (CCSS: RI.5.2)
    • Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text. (CCSS: RI.5.3)
    • Distinguish between fact and opinion, providing support for judgments made
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area. (CCSS: RI.5.4)
    • Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts. (CCSS: RI.5.5)
    • Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent. (CCSS: RI.5.6)
    • Use informational text features (such as bold type, headings, graphic organizers, numbering schemes, glossary) and text structures to organize or categorize information, to answer questions, or to perform specific tasks
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently. (CCSS: RI.5.7)
    • Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s). (CCSS: RI.5.8)
    • Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. (CCSS: RI.5.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4-5 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RI.5.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How and when do readers adjust reading strategies to better understand different types of text?
  2. What text features are most helpful and why? How do text features help readers access information quickly?
  3. Why do authors use specific text features to convey a message?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Text features communicate key concepts.
  2. Skimming and scanning are important elements of learning and gathering information.
  3. The information age requires readers to process lots of information quickly and to determine importance.
  4. Online reading makes it challenging for students to learn to focus and follow hyperlinked texts only as appropriate to the information seeking task

Nature Of:

  1. Readers automatically retrieve information while they skim and scan text.
  2. Readers use text features before, during, and after reading to increase connections and comprehension.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Knowledge of morphology and word relationships matters when reading

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context. (CCSS: RF.5.3a)
  2. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (CCSS: RF.5.4)
    • Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: RF.5.4a)
    • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis). (CCSS: RF.5.4b)
    • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. (CCSS: RF.5.3c)
  3. Read and identify the meaning of words with sophisticated prefixes and suffixes
  4. Apply knowledge of derivational suffixes that change the part of speech of the base word (such as active, activity)
  5. Infer meaning of words using structural analysis, context, and knowledge of multiple meanings
  6. Read and identify the meaning of roots and related word families in which the pronunciation of the root does not change
  7. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. (CCSS: RF.5.4)
    • Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. (CCSS: RF.5.4a)
    • Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. (CCSS: RF.5.4b)
    • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. (CCSS: RF.5.4c)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does a readers' knowledge of morphology help them effectively decode and understand multisyllabic words?
  2. Select one basic root word and find multiple affixes that extend the meaning of this root.
  3. How did the English language end up with so many "borrowed" roots from Latin and Greek?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Using knowledge of morphology supports the ability to decode and comprehend the meanings of multisyllabic words.
  2. Writing using multisyllabic words enhances the quality of the work.
  3. Decoding multisyllabic words allows readers to read fluently across the content areas.
  4. Exposure to affixes and their meanings increases vocabulary both in writing and speaking.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers use their understanding of morphology and word relationships to read texts with multisyllabic words.
  2. Readers make the connections that words have prefixes and suffixes that change the meaning.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fourth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Comprehension and fluency matter when reading literary texts in a fluent way

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (CCSS: RL.4.1)
    • Identify and draw inferences about setting, characters (such as motivations, personality traits), and plot. (CCSS: RL.4.2)
    • Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. (CCSS: RL.4.3)
    • Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character's thoughts, words, or actions). (CCSS: RL.4.4)
    • Describe the development of plot (such as the origin of the central conflict, the action of the plot, and how the conflict is resolved)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean). (CCSS: RL.4.4)
    • Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text. (CCSS: RL.4.5)
    • Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations. (CCSS: RL.4.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text. (CCSS: RL.4.7)
    • Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures. (CCSS: RL.4.9)
    • Summarize text by identifying important ideas and sequence and by providing supporting details, while maintaining sequence.
  4. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 4-5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (CCSS: RL.4.10)
    • Read familiar texts orally with fluency, accuracy, and prosody (expression)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do people use different reading strategies to better understand different genres (poetry, stories, nonfiction)?
  2. What can readers infer about the main character of a text?
  3. How are you similar or different from the characters in the text?
  4. How did the author use events to prepare the reader for the ending?
  5. How would the story be different if the author changed the setting?

Relevance & Application:

  1. The skills used in reading comprehension transfers to readers' ability to understand and interpret events.
  2. Analyzing character traits supports working relationships in the workplace.
  3. It is important to be able to identify conflict and how it occurs and to look for strategies to deal with conflict.
  4. Reading with prosody increases comprehension and fluency. These are skills of proficient readers.
  5. Use of voice recording software to record, listen to and follow along with words and texts can enhance understanding

Nature Of:

  1. Readers think about the tone and message of the text. They use the expression to make reading clear.
  2. Readers continually monitor their thinking as they read.
  3. Readers think about how the setting of a story can completely change how they think about the plot. Readers think about how the story would have been different in a different setting.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Comprehension and fluency matter when reading informational and persuasive texts in a fluent way

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (CCSS: RI.4.1)
    • Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text. (CCSS: RI.4.2)
    • Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. (CCSS: RI.4.3)
    • Skim materials to develop a general overview of content
    • Scan to locate specific information or to perform a specific task (finding a phone number, locating a definition in a glossary, identifying a specific phrase in a passage)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area. (CCSS: RI.4.4)
    • Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text. (CCSS: RI.4.5)
    • Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided. (CCSS: RI.4.6)
    • Identify common organizational structures (paragraphs, topic sentences, concluding sentences) and explain how they aid comprehension
    • Use text features (bold type, headings, visuals, captions, glossary) to organize or categorize information
    • Identify conclusions
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. (CCSS: RI.4.7)
    • Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text. (CCSS: RI.4.8)
    • Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. (CCSS: RI.4.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4-5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (CCSS: RI.4.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What does informational text tell readers about themselves, others, and the world?
  2. How do text features help readers gain information that they need?
  3. How do readers know if the text is informing them or trying to persuade them?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Announcers read stylized print with appropriate inflection.
  2. Readers interpret the intended message in various genres (such as fables, billboards, Web pages, poetry, and posters).
  3. Online comprehension strategies differ from those used to comprehend printed text due to non-linear design and the addition of multimedia clues which can greatly distract or aid in understanding.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers read for enjoyment and information.
  2. Readers make connections from what they are reading to previous selections within text or other sources.
  3. When readers analyze well-written paragraphs, they support their writing skills.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Knowledge of complex orthography (spelling patterns), morphology (word meanings), and word relationships to decode (read) multisyllabic words contributes to better reading skills

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. (CCSS: RF.4.3)
    • Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context. (CCSS: RF.4.3a)
  2. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. (CCSS: RF.4.4)
    • Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. (CCSS: RF.4.4a)
    • Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. (CCSS: RF.4.4b)
    • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. (CCSS: RF.4.4c)
  3. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (CCSS: L.4.4)
    • Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.4.4a)
    • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph). (CCSS: L.4.4b)
    • Read and understand words with common prefixes (un-, re-, dis-) and derivational suffixes (-ful, -ly, -ness)
    • Read and understand words that change spelling to show past tense: write/wrote, catch/caught, teach/taught
    • Read multisyllabic words with and without inflectional and derivational suffixes
    • Infer meaning of words using explanations offered within a text
    • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. (CCSS: L.4.4c)
  4. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS: L.4.5)
    • Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context. (CCSS: L.4.5a)
    • Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs. (CCSS: L.4.5b)
    • Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms). (CCSS: L.4.5c)
  5. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation). (CCSS: L.4.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How can analyzing word structures help readers understand word meanings?
  2. How do prefixes (un-, re-) and suffixes (-ness, -ful) change the meaning of a word (meaning, meaningful)?
  3. Why do root words change their spelling when suffixes are added?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Changing accent changes the meaning of words (CONtest, conTEST).
  2. Voice recording software and tools a iPods provide students opportunity to listen to and record multisyllabic words and text
  3. Readers can create new words by adding prefixes and suffixes (such as wood, wooden).
  4. The spelling of multisyllabic root words can change when suffixes are added (transfer, transferrable).

Nature Of:

  1. The ability to notice accent is essential for successful communication.
  2. Readers use phonemes, graphemes (letters), and morphemes (suffixes, prefixes) in an alphabetic language.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Third Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Strategies are needed to make meaning of various types of literary genres

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. (CCSS: RL.3.1)
    • Use a variety of comprehension strategies to interpret text (attending, searching, predicting, checking, and self-correcting)
    • Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text. (CCSS: RL.3.2)
    • Describe and draw inferences about the elements of plot, character, and setting in literary pieces, poems, and plays
    • Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events. (CCSS: RL.3.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language. (CCSS: RL.3.4)
    • Use signal words (such as before, after, next) and text structure (narrative, chronology) to determine the sequence of major events
    • Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections. (CCSS: RL.3.5)
    • Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters. (CCSS: RL.3.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Explain how specific aspects of a text's illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (e.g., create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting). (CCSS: RL.3.7)
    • Summarize central ideas and important details from literary text
    • Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g., in books from a series). (CCSS: RL.3.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 2-3 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RL.3.10)
  5. Read grade level text accurately and fluently, attending to phrasing, intonation, and punctuation

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do readers use different reading strategies to better understand a variety of texts?
  2. How is accuracy in reading like accuracy in mathematics?
  3. What would reading be like if readers had no signal words to assist them?
  4. What was one prediction that you made that changed after you read the text?

Relevance & Application:

  1. The skills used in reading comprehension transfer to readers' ability to understand and interpret information.
  2. Poets give readers literature with specific structure for styled meaning.
  3. School plays require a plot and settings to be interesting.
  4. Publishing podcasts online provide an authentic audience for students to help them in practicing fluency.

Nature Of:

  1. Using what they know about phrasing and punctuation helps readers read proficiently and get more meaning from a text.
  2. Reading helps people understand themselves and makes connections to the world.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Comprehension strategies are necessary when reading informational or persuasive text

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. (CCSS: RI.3.1)
    • Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea. (CCSS: RI.3.2)
    • Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect. (CCSS: RI.3.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area. (CCSS: RI.3.4)
    • Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently. (CCSS: RI.3.5)
    • Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text. (CCSS: RI.3.6)
    • Use semantic cues and signal words (because, although) to identify cause/effect and compare/contrast relationships
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur). (CCSS: RI.3.7)
    • Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence). (CCSS: RI.3.8)
    • Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic. (CCSS: RI.3.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 2-3 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RI.3.10)
    • Adjust reading rate according to type of text and purpose for reading.

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do readers use different reading strategies to better understand a variety of texts (science, social studies, nonfiction)?
  2. Looking at our list of comprehension strategies, which one supported your thinking the most as you read this genre today (e.g., I used monitoring because this text had many details and technical terms.)?
  3. How does cause and effect work in people's lives?
  4. When does punctuation change the entire meaning of a sentence?

Relevance & Application:

  1. The skills used in reading comprehension transfers to readers' ability to understand and interpret events.
  2. Throughout life, people will be asked to retell or recount events that have occurred.
  3. Signal words are used to assist readers in describing key events.
  4. Summarizing is a life skill that will be used every day as people read, express opinions about a topic, or retell an event.
  5. Readers must organize details from informational text as they read (using a graphic organizer, two-column notes, outline, etc.).
  6. Reading and preparing for commenting on classroom blogs gives students practice in locating information to support opinions make predictions and draw conclusions.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers read for enjoyment and information.
  2. Reading helps people understand themselves and make connections to the world.
  3. Readers use comprehension strategies automatically without thinking about using them.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Increasing word understanding, word use, and word relationships increases vocabulary

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. (CCSS: RF.3.3)
    • Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and derivational suffixes. (CCSS: RF.3.3a)
    • Decode words with common Latin suffixes. (CCSS: RF.3.3b)
    • Decode multisyllable words. (CCSS: RF.3.3c)
    • Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. (CCSS: RF.3.3d)
  2. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. (CCSS: RF.3.4)
    • Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. (CCSS.3.4a)
    • Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. (CCSS.3.4b)
    • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. (CCSS.3.4c)
  3. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (CCSS: L.3.4)
    • Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.3.4a)
    • Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known affix is added to a known word (e.g., agreeable/disagreeable, comfortable/uncomfortable, care/careless, heat/preheat). (CCSS: L.3.4b)
    • Use knowledge of word relationships to identify antonyms or synonyms to clarify meaning.
    • Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., company, companion). (CCSS: L.3.4c)
    • Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. (CCSS: L.3.4d)
  4. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS: L.3.5)
    • Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context (e.g., take steps). (CCSS: L.3.5a)
    • Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe people who are friendly or helpful). (CCSS: L.3.5b)
    • Distinguish shades of meaning among related words that describe states of mind or degrees of certainty (e.g., knew, believed, suspected, heard, wondered). (CCSS: L.3.5c)
  5. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships (e.g., After dinner that night we went looking for them). (CCSS: L.3.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do prefixes (un-, re-) and suffixes (-ness, -ful) change the meaning of a word (happy, happiness; help, helpful)?
  2. How are prefixes and suffixes useful in oral and written communication?
  3. How are prefixes and suffixes similar? How are they different?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Readers recognize common words that do not fit regular spelling patterns. (TV and magazines use common words that do not fit regular spelling patterns.)
  2. The spelling of a base word can change when adding suffixes (hop, hopping; hope, hoping).
  3. Decoding words is a skill that is useful throughout life.
  4. Animated graphic organizers can assist with the task of word categorization.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers use phonemes, graphemes (letters), and morphemes (suffixes, prefixes) in an alphabetic language.
  2. Readers can decode words with ease and notice if words have a prefix or suffix and simply see the base word.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Second Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Fluent reading depends on specific skills and approaches to understanding strategies when reading literary text

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Demonstrate use of self-monitoring comprehension strategies: rereading, checking context clues, predicting, questioning, clarifying, activating schema/background knowledge to construct meaning and draw inferences
    • Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. (CCSS: RL.2.1)
    • Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral. (CCSS: RL.2.2)
    • Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges. (CCSS: RL.2.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song. (CCSS: RL.2.4)
    • Read high-frequency words with accuracy and speed
    • Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action. (CCSS: RL.2.5)
    • Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud. (CCSS: RL.2.6)
    • Identify how word choice (sensory details, figurative language) enhances meaning in poetry
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot. (CCSS: RL.2.7)
    • Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures. (CCSS: RL.2.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity to:
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (CCSS: RL.2.10)
  5. Compare formal and informal uses of English. (CCSS: L.2.3a)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why is it important to read the title before reading the text?
  2. What would happen to comprehension if readers never went back and re-read something they did not understand?
  3. Why is it important to read accurately and fluently?
  4. What would a summary look like if a writer did not stick to the important details?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Read stories and text to others using appropriate phrasing, intonation, rate, and attention to punctuation.
  2. Distinguish different literary forms (i.e., poetry, narrative, fiction).
  3. Interpret the intended message in various genres (such as fables, billboards, web pages, poetry, and posters).
  4. Listening and reading along with the text of digital audio stories of multiple genres aid in comprehension and fluency.

Nature Of:

  1. Reading helps people understand themselves and make connections to the world.
  2. Readers use comprehension strategies automatically without thinking about them.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Fluent reading depends on specific skills and approaches to understanding strategies when reading informational text

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. (CCSS: RI.2.1)
    • Identify the main topic of a multiparagraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text. (CCSS: RI.2.2)
    • Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text. (CCSS: RI.2.3)
    • Summarize the main idea using relevant and significant detail in a variety of texts read or read aloud
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area. (CCSS: RI.2.)
    • Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently. (CCSS: RI.2.5)
    • Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe. (CCSS: RI.2.6)
    • Read text to perform a specific task (such as follow a recipe, play a game)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text. (CCSS: RI.2.7)
    • Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text. (CCSS: RI.2.8)
    • Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic. (CCSS: RI.2.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity to:
    • Adjust reading rate according to type of text and purpose for reading
    • By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (CCSS: RI.2.10)
  5. Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases. (CCSS: L.2.4e)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What text features are most useful when reading informational texts? Why?
  2. How does using the table of contents save a reader time?
  3. What are two or more uses of the bold key words in the text?
  4. How do captions assist a reader in gathering information?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Use background knowledge and connect it to new information to learn many new concepts or ideas.
  2. Identifying features of online websites help one navigate and understand saving time and increasing comprehension.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers gather information from multiple sources. Comparing what they know to what they want to learn helps construct new meaning.
  2. Readers read for enjoyment and information.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Decoding words with accuracy depends on knowledge of complex spelling patterns and morphology

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. (CCSS: RF.2.3)
    • Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words. (CCSS: RF.2.3a)
    • Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams. (CCSS: RF.2.3b)
    • Read multisyllabic words accurately and fluently
    • Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels. (CCSS: RF.2.3c)
    • Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes. (CCSS: RF.2.3d)
    • Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences. (CCSS: RF.2.3e)
    • Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. (CCSS: RF.2.3f)
  2. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. (CCSS: RF.2.4)
    • Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. (CCSS: RF.2.4a)
    • Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. (CCSS: RF.2.4b)
    • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. (CCSS: RF.2.4c)
  3. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies. (CCSS: L.2.4)
    • Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.2.4a)
    • Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell). (CCSS: L.2.4b)
    • Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional). (CCSS: L.2.4c)
    • Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, bookmark). (CCSS: L.2.4d)
  4. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS: L.2.5)
    • Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe foods that are spicy or juicy). (CCSS: L.2.5a)
    • Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl) and closely related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender, skinny, scrawny). (CCSS: L.2.5b)
  5. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy). (CCSS: L.2.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do prefixes (un-, re-) and suffixes (-s, -ed, -est) change the meaning of a word?
  2. Which words don't follow the phonics rules?
  3. Which strategies should be used to decode multisyllabic words?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Readers recognize common words that do not fit regular spelling patterns.
  2. Readers understand that the spelling of a suffix connects to its meaning, not its sound (suffix -s = /z/ in dogs; -ed = /t/ in missed).

Nature Of:

  1. The ability to decode increasingly complex words is essential for successful reading development.
  2. Readers use phonemes, graphemes (letters), and morphemes (suffixes, prefixes) in an alphabetic language.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: First Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Comprehending and fluently reading a variety of literary texts are the beginning traits of readers

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (CCSS: RL.1.1)
    • Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson. (CCSS: RL.1.2)
    • Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details. (CCSS: RL.1.3)
    • Make predictions about what will happen in the text and explain whether they were confirmed or not and why
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses. (CCSS: RL.1.4)
    • Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types. (CCSS: RL.1.5)
    • Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text. (CCSS: RL.1.6)
    • Follow and replicate patterns in predictable poems.
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events. (CCSS: RL.1.7)
    • Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories. (CCSS: RL.1.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity to:
    • With prompting and support, read prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for grade 1. (CCSS: RL.1.10)
  5. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension: (CCSS: RF.1.4)
    • Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. (CCSS: RF.1.4a)
    • Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. (CCSS: RF.1.4b)
    • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. (CCSS: RF.1.4c)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does a reader picture the character?
  2. How does a reader explain a character's actions?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Readers can use a graphic organizer to sequence key events/details in a literary or informational text.
  2. Readers want to pay attention to punctuation marks to help them with the meaning of the story.

Nature Of:

  1. Reading fluently helps people comprehend what they have read.
  2. Identifying the problem in a story also helps readers think about the solution.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Comprehending and fluently reading a variety of informational texts are the beginning traits of readers

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (CCSS: RI.1.1)
    • Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. (CCSS: RI.1.2)
    • Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text. (CCSS: RI.1.3)
    • Activate schema and background knowledge to construct meaning
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text. (CCSS: RI.1.4)
    • Know and use various text features (e.g., headings, tables of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text. (CCSS: RI.1.5)
    • Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text. (CCSS: RI.1.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas. (CCSS: RI.1.7)
    • Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text. (CCSS: RI.1.8)
    • Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures). (CCSS: RI.1.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity to:
    • With prompting and support, read informational texts appropriately complex for grade 1. (CCSS: RI.1.10)
  5. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. (CCSS: RF.1.4)
    • Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. (CCSS: RF.1.4a)
    • Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. (CCSS: RF.1.4b)
    • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. (CCSS: RF.1.4c)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What is the author saying with different punctuation marks?
  2. How does a reader's voice change when a sentence uses a specific punctuation mark?
  3. In informational text, why is the main idea important? How do the details support the main idea?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Readers can use a graphic organizer to sequence key events/details in a literary or informational text.
  2. Authors help readers make connections to the world.

Nature Of:

  1. Reading fluently helps people comprehend what they have read.
  2. Readers can share facts after reading an informational text.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Decoding words require the application of alphabetic principles, letter sounds, and letter combinations

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. (CCSS: RF.1.3)
    • Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs (two letters that represent one sound). (CCSS: RF.1.3a)
    • Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words. (CCSS: RF.1.3b)
    • Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds. (CCSS: RF.1.3c)
    • Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word. (CCSS: RF.1.3d)
    • Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables. (CCSS: RF.1.3e)
    • Read words with inflectional endings. (CCSS: RF.1.3f)
    • Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. (CCSS: RF.1.3g)
    • Use onsets and rimes to create new words (ip to make dip, lip, slip, ship)
    • Accurately decode unknown words that follow a predictable letter/sound relationship

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do phonemes (speech sounds) connect to graphemes (letters and letter clusters)?
  2. What new words can readers make from the rime /ip/? What blends can readers use to build new words?
  3. What new game can you make with short vowels and closed syllables?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Readers can read and spell many new words using regular phoneme/grapheme correspondences.
  2. Software games can offer practice with the alphabet, sounds of letters, and letter combinations to decode words.
  3. Readers recognize common words that do not fit regular spelling patterns.
  4. The spelling of a suffix connects to its meaning, not its sound. (suffix -s = /z/ in dogs; -ed = /t/ in missed)

Nature Of:

  1. Readers use phonemes, graphemes (letters), and morphemes (suffixes) in an alphabetic language.
  2. Readers accurately read high-frequency words in connected text.
  3. Readers read grade-appropriate, decodable text.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

4. Understanding word structure, word relationships, and word families needs to be demonstrated to begin to read

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies. (CCSS: L.1.4)
    • Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.1.4a)
    • Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word. (CCSS: L.1.4b)
    • Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g., look) and their inflectional forms (e.g., looks, looked, looking). (CCSS: L.1.4c)
  2. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS: L.1.5)
    • Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent. (CCSS: L.1.5a)
    • Define words by category and by one or more key attributes (e.g., a duck is a bird that swims; a tiger is a large cat with stripes). (CCSS: L.1.5b)
    • Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy). (CCSS: L.1.5c)
    • Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings. (CCSS: L.1.5d)
  3. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because). (CCSS: L.1.6)
  4. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. (CCSS: RF.1.1)
    • Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation). (CCSS: RF.1.1a)
    • Create new words by combining base words with affixes to connect known words to new words
    • Identify and understand compound words

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why do readers call words with two words in them compound words?
  2. When readers sort words, what are some ways to sort them (types of concepts, attributes, initial sounds)?
  3. If a reader wants to show more than one, what suffix does he/she use?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Readers need to use a variety of strategies for reading unfamiliar words.
  2. When they recognize a compound word, readers can find the two words in it (such as hotdog, baseball, newspaper, pigpen, sandbox).
  3. Using base words with affixes expands vocabulary knowledge.
  4. Computer software and online games help one to understand word structure through the addition of multimedia and graphical representations of words and word families

Nature Of:

  1. Readers use language structure in oral and written communication.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Kindergarten
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. A concept of print to read and a solid comprehension of literary texts are the building blocks for reading

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (CCSS: RL.K.1)
    • With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details. (CCSS: RL.K.2)
    • With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story. (CCSS: RL.K.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text. (CCSS: RL.K.4)
    • Recognize common types of texts (e.g., storybooks, poems). (CCSS: RL.K.5)
    • With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling the story. (CCSS: RL.K.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts). (CCSS: RL.K.7)
    • With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories. (CCSS: RL.K.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity to:
    • Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. (CCSS: RL.K.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. During a picture-walk through a book, what do readers predict? Why?
  2. What words can readers use to describe the main character in a story?
  3. Was the title of this story a good title? What could be another title?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Thinking about the characters in a story helps make a connection to them.
  2. Online games and computer software provide a means to practice identifying main characters, setting, key events, arranging events in order.

Nature Of:

  1. Reading helps people understand themselves and make connections to the world.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. A concept of print to read and a solid comprehension of informational text are the building blocks for reading

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (CCSS: RI.K.1)
    • With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. (CCSS: RI.K.2)
    • With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text. (CCSS: RI.K.3)
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text. (CCSS: RI.K.4)
    • Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book. (CCSS: RI.K.5)
    • Name the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information in a text. (CCSS: RI.K.6)
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear (e.g., what person, place, thing, or idea in the text an illustration depicts). (CCSS: RI.K.7)
    • With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text. (CCSS: RI.K.8)
    • With prompting and support, identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures). (CCSS: RI.K.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity to:
    • Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. (CCSS: RI.K.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do the illustrations help you figure out the meaning of the text?
  2. Explain why informational text is not read like a literary text.

Relevance & Application:

  1. Environmental print, signs, or symbols help people follow directions (such as walk or wait street crossing signs, routine schedules).
  2. Environmental print, signs, or symbols help to organize daily life (put materials or toys away).
  3. When readers read or hear information, they remember what is learned and share information with others.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers make connections to what they are reading

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Decoding words in print requires alphabet recognition and knowledge of letter sounds

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. (CCSS: RF.K.1)
    • Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page. (CCSS: RF.K.1a)
    • Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters. (CCSS: RF.K.1b)
    • Understand that words are separated by spaces in print. (CCSS: RF.K.1c)
    • Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet. (CCSS: RF.K.1d)
  2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes). (CCSS: RF.K.2)
    • Recognize and produce rhyming words. (CCSS: RF.K.2a)
    • Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words. (CCSS: RF.K.2b)
    • Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words. (CCSS: RF.K.2c)
    • Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words. (This does not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.) (CCSS: RF.K.2d)
    • Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words. (CCSS: RF.K.2e)
    • Identify phonemes for letters.
  3. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content. (CCSS: L.K.4)
    • Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck). (CCSS: L.K.4a)
    • Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, pre-, -ful, -less) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word. (CCSS: L.K.4b)
  4. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. (CCSS: RF.K3)
    • Demonstrate basic knowledge of letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary or most frequent sound for each consonant. (CCSS: RF.K.3a)
    • Associate the long and short sounds with the common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels. (CCSS: RF.K.3b)
    • Read common high-frequency words by sight (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does). (CCSS: RF.K.3c)
    • Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ. (CCSS: RF.K.3d)
  5. Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding. (CCSS: RF.K.4)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do phonemes (speech sounds) connect to graphemes (letters and letter clusters)?
  2. What letters are needed to spell the word _______?
  3. What sounds are in the word _______?
  4. How many sounds are in the word "cat"? (/k/ /a/ /t/ - three sounds)
  5. Where do you find other letters in our room that are like letters in your name?
  6. Why is an uppercase letter used at the beginning of a name?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Readers can play with letter-sounds to make many new words (am, tam, Sam).
  2. Readers recognize common words that have similar spelling patterns (ant/plant, Tim/rim/brim, sun/run/fun).
  3. Using digital and video recording devices offer practice letter-sounds in order to hear and analyze their own voice.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers understand that phonemes (speech sounds) are connected to print using graphemes (letters).
  2. Readers know all of the letter sounds and letter names.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Preschool
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Print conveys meaning

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Hold books in upright position, turn pages sequentially, recognize correct orientation (top to bottom, left to right)
  2. Recognize print in the environment
  3. Recognize that printed material conveys meaning and connects to the reader's world
  4. Use and interpret illustrations to gain meaning
  5. Make predictions based on illustrations or portions of story or text
  6. Generate a picture or written response to a read-aloud that identifies the who or what of the story or text

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What does print communicate or tell readers?
  2. Why is print important?
  3. How many words are on this page?
  4. The pictures in this tale suggest the story is about __________.

Relevance & Application:

  1. Words, signs, and symbols all around the house and outside give direction (such as walk or wait street crossing signs, routine schedules).
  2. Words, signs, and symbols help people to organize their lives (put materials or toys away).
  3. Knowing how to hold a book means a more automatic and faster way to becoming a reader. Using the pictures on the page will help tell what the story is about.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers use environmental print, signs, or symbols to communicate with others.
  2. Readers know how to hold a book correctly and turn the pages.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Symbol, object, and letter recognition is a fundamental of reading and requires accuracy and speed

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Recognize own name in print
  2. Recognize the names of a minimum of 10 letters of the alphabet, specifically letters in own name
  3. Begin to name familiar objects, colors, letters, and numbers rapidly and in random order

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What do letters mean?
  2. How do letters and words communicate meaning?
  3. Why is it important that people know the letters in their name?
  4. How do letters connect with phonemes (speech sounds)?
  5. What items in a box are alike in some way? (For example, bear, bull-they are both animals. Both bear and bull start with /b/).

Relevance & Application:

  1. Children begin to understand that letters are symbols that represent meaning.
  2. Letters will help children learn to be good readers and writers.
  3. Children learn how to sort many items in their lives.
  4. Using letters to write a name or say the names of letters will help children be better readers.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers know that phonemes (speech sounds) are connected to print using graphemes (letters).
  2. Readers understand that letters and words convey meaning in the world.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Twelfth Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Style, detail, expressive language, and genre create a well-crafted statement directed at an intended audience and purpose

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use a range of elaboration techniques (such as questioning, comparing, connecting, interpreting, analyzing, or describing) to establish and express point of view and theme
  2. Create a clear and coherent, logically consistent structure appropriate to the chosen literary genre (biographical account, short story, personal narrative, narrative poem or song, parody of particular narrative style, play script)
  3. Develop context, character/narrator motivation, problem/conflict and resolution, and descriptive details/examples to support and express theme
  4. Manipulate elements of style, imagery, tone, and point of view to appeal to the senses and emotions of the reader
  5. Critique own writing and the writing of others from the perspective of the intended audience to guide revisions, improve voice and style (word choice, sentence variety, figurative language) and achieve intended purpose and effect

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does figurative language enhance the writer's intended meaning?
  2. In what way is the setting a significant part of a text?
  3. How might events in a story be different if the setting were different?
  4. What literary genre best fits your interest and why?
  5. If you were invited to write a short story about an event in your life or that of another person, what would you write about and why?
  6. Who would your intended audience be for this piece of work?
  7. How are the lyrics of a song directed at a particular audience?

Relevance & Application:

  1. In an adapted film, screenwriters must effectively synthesize original, literary writing to produce an action-oriented screenplay.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers look for symbolism, connections, and other elaboration techniques.
  2. Writers increase their skill set in creating tone and imagery.
  3. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 11-12. (CCSS: WHST.11-12.1-6 and 10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Ideas, evidence, structure, and style create persuasive, academic, and technical texts for particular audiences and specific purposes

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Articulate a position through a sophisticated claim or thesis statement and advance it using evidence, examples, and counterarguments
  2. Select appropriate and relevant information (excluding extraneous details) to set context
  3. Address audience needs and anticipate audience questions or misunderstandings
  4. Select and build context for language appropriate to content (technical, formal)
  5. Control and enhance the flow of ideas through transitional words or phrases appropriate to text structure
  6. Support judgments with substantial evidence and purposeful elaboration
  7. Draw a conclusion by synthesizing information
  8. Revise writing using feedback to maximize effect on audience and to calibrate purpose

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do writers select appropriate details to develop and support a strong thesis?
  2. Why is it important to identify audience needs and address counterarguments?
  3. Why is relevance a key element of technical writing?
  4. How is credibility of sources pertinent to academic or persuasive writing?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Writers can persuade readers and voice opinions through various forms of writing (such as an editorial for the school or local news source).
  2. Congressional representatives receive many letters from the public voicing their opinions and asking for change.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers prepare to write by thinking about their intended audience and the purpose of their work.
  2. Writers anticipate what questions may be asked or could be misunderstood with their topic and devote quality time to responding to these questions.
  3. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 11-12. (CCSS: WHST.11-12.1-6 and 10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Standard English conventions effectively communicate to targeted audiences and purposes

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Follow the conventions of standard English to write varied, strong, correct, complete sentences
  2. Deliberately manipulate the conventions of standard English for stylistic effect appropriate to the needs of a particular audience and purpose
  3. Seek and use an appropriate style guide to govern conventions for a particular audience and purpose

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What makes the final draft of a document look professional and polished?
  2. How does structure affect clarity?
  3. What are benefits to using software tools? What are the disadvantages to such software?
  4. When is it appropriate to include visuals in a presentation?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Writers produce polished documents for publication.
  2. Building fluency with software tools will increase application in writing.
  3. Today's world caters to visual information, graphics and photo images.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers create visual images when writing and think about visual tools that can be embedded in presentations.
  2. Writers self-edit to become more aware of their writing and the key points they want to make.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eleventh Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Stylistic and thematic elements of literary or narrative texts can be refined to engage or entertain an audience

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences. (CCSS: W.11-12.3)
    • Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events. (CCSS: W.11-12.3a)
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters. (CCSS: W.11-12.3b)
    • Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution). (CCSS: W.11-12.3c)
    • Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters. (CCSS: W.11-12.3d)
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative. (CCSS: W.11-12.3e)
    • Use a range of strategies to evaluate whether the writing is presented in a clear and engaging manner (such as reading the text from the perspective of the intended audience, seeking feedback from a reviewer)
    • Evaluate and revise text to eliminate unnecessary details, ineffective stylistic devices, and vague or confusing language

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What are the implications if the revision process is not done?
  2. Why do writers want to appeal to the readers' senses?
  3. Why use sensory tools to influence the reader?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Many companies and colleges require a statement of intent when applying for a job or completing applications, respectively.
  2. Conveying a point of view in writing is an important skill to have when applying for a competitive job or to college.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers enjoy finding new ways to create tone or mood in writing.
  2. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 11-12. (CCSS: WHST.11-12.1-6 and 10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Elements of informational and persuasive texts can be refined to inform or influence an audience

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. (CCSS: W.11-12.1)
    • Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. (CCSS: W.11-12.1a)
    • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases. (CCSS: W.11-12.1b)
    • Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. (CCSS: W.11-12.1c)
    • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. (CCSS: W.11-12.1d)
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. (CCSS: W.11-12.1e)
  2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. (CCSS: W.11-12.2)
    • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. (CCSS: W.11-12.2a)
    • Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic. (CCSS: W.11-12.2b)
    • Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts. (CCSS: W.11-12.2c)
    • Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic. (CCSS: W.11-12.2d)
    • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. (CCSS: W.11-12.2e)
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic). (CCSS: W.11-12.2f)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why is audience determination important to the writer?
  2. What are the implications if the revision process is not done?
  3. Why do authors want to appeal to the readers' senses?
  4. How is this beneficial to the reader?
  5. How does an author use sensory tools to influence readers as they read?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Forest rangers and cattlemen can sometimes refine information to differentiate their respective points of view.
  2. Blogs, advertising and public service announcements are examples of where persuasive texts attempt to influence audiences.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers can clearly articulate their thoughts to persuade or inform an audience.
  2. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 11-12. (CCSS: WHST.11-12.1-6 and 10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Writing demands ongoing revisions and refinements for grammar, usage, mechanics, and clarity

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.11-12.1)
    • Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested. (CCSS: L.11-12.1a)
    • Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, Garner's Modern American Usage) as needed. (CCSS: L.11-12.1b)
    • Use a variety of phrases (absolute, appositive) accurately and purposefully to improve writing
    • Use idioms correctly, particularly prepositions that follow verbs
    • Ensure that a verb agrees with its subject in complex constructions (such as inverted subject/verb order, indefinite pronoun as subject, intervening phrases or clauses)
    • Use a style guide to follow the conventions of Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA) format
    • Use resources (print and electronic) and feedback to edit and enhance writing for purpose and audience
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.11-12.2)
    • Observe hyphenation conventions. (CCSS: L.11-12.2a)
    • Spell correctly. (CCSS: L.11-12.2b)
  3. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in expectations 1-2 above.) (CCSS: W.11-12.4)
  4. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (CCSS: W.11-12.5)
  5. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information. (CCSS: W.11-12.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does word choice affect the message a writer conveys?
  2. How does a writer plan his/her work for a specific audience?
  3. Why is it important to know and properly use the English conventions of writing?
  4. What are both a benefit and a caution to using grammar and spell-checker tools?
  5. How does reviewing previous drafts and revisions improve a writer's work?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Writing personal narratives in college essays and scholarship applications is necessary to be considered as a candidate.
  2. Using the dictionary, spell-checker, and other tools can teach as well as correct or edit writing.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers save copies of their revisions to see how their writing has progressed.
  2. Writers use proper English conventions when writing.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Tenth Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Literary or narrative genres feature a variety of stylistic devices to engage or entertain an audience

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences. (CCSS: W.9-10.3)
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters. (CCSS: W.9-10.2b)
    • Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters. (CCSS: W.9-10.2d)
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative. (CCSS: W.9-10.2e)
  2. Write literary and narrative texts using a range of stylistic devices (poetic techniques, figurative language, imagery, graphic elements) to support the presentation of implicit or explicit theme
  3. Use a variety of strategies to evaluate whether the writing is presented in a creative and reflective manner (e.g., reading the draft aloud, seeking feedback from a reviewer, scoring guides)
  4. Revise texts using feedback to enhance the effect on the reader and clarify the presentation of implicit or explicit theme

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What makes the final draft of a document look professional and polished?
  2. How does paragraph structure and formatting increase the clarity of the writer's message?
  3. What style do you find most useful to you as a writer? Why?
  4. Why is it important to keep an audience engaged?
  5. What would happen if the audience was bored or uninterested in a piece?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Audience members like to be entertained by different genres, including comedy, drama, and action.
  2. Consumers lose interest in text that is boring and uneventful.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers try to anticipate what the counterarguments of their topic may be.
  2. Writers find new ways to increase writing effectiveness by working to infuse more elegance in their wording and sentence fluency.
  3. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 9-10. (CCSS: WHST.9-10.1-6 and 10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Organizational writing patterns inform or persuade an audience

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. (CCSS: W.9-10.2)
    • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. (CCSS: W.9-10.2a)
    • Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic. (CCSS: W.9-10.2b)
    • Choose and develop an effective appeal
    • Collect, organize, and evaluate materials to support ideas
    • Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts. (CCSS: W.9-10.2c)
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic. (CCSS: W.9-10.2d)
    • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. (CCSS: W.9-10.2e)
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic). (CCSS: W.9-10.2f)
    • Revise writing by evaluating relationship of central idea, evidence, and organizational pattern
    • Explain how writers use organization and details to communicate their purposes
    • Present writing to an authentic audience and gauge effect on audience for intended purpose

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does a writer organize writing to convey the intended message?
  2. What is the primary audience for this type of writing? Why?
  3. What would writing be like without figurative language?
  4. Why is it important that language match the audience being addressed?
  5. What are the implications of using language that may not match an audience?
  6. How does a writer determine the purpose of his/her writing?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Learning different purposes for writing increases an author's effectiveness.
  2. Researchers synthesize information from a variety of sources to present ideas.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers are purposeful in what they say, in how they develop the topic, and in the words they choose. The empowerment of being an author is exciting!
  2. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 9-10. (CCSS: WHST.9-10.1-6 and 10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Grammar, language usage, mechanics, and clarity are the basis of ongoing refinements and revisions within the writing process

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.9-10.1)
    • Use parallel structure. (CCSS: L.9-10.1a)
    • Distinguish between the active and passive voice, and write in the active voice
    • Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations. (CCSS: L.9-10.1b)
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.9-10.2)
    • Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses. (CCSS: L.9-10.2a)
    • Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation. (CCSS: L.9-10.2b)
  3. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. (CCSS: L.9-10.3)
    • Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook, Turabian's Manual for Writers) appropriate for the discipline and writing type. (CCSS: L.9-10.3a)
  4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in expectations 1-2 above.) (CCSS: W.9-10.4)
  5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (CCSS: W.9-10.5)
  6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology's capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically. (CCSS: W.9-10.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What would writing look like if there were no punctuation?
  2. Why would it be difficult to read texts that do not have correct punctuation?
  3. How does voice make writing more interesting?
  4. Why is correct grammar important to the reader?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Book publishers edit texts before they are sent to printing.
  2. Professional editing tools help publishers edit work to meet rapid deadlines.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers create texts that are coherent to the reader.
  2. Writers revise texts multiple times before a final draft is published.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Ninth Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Literary and narrative texts develop a controlling idea or theme with descriptive and expressive language

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences. (CCSS: W.9-10.3)
    • Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events. (CCSS: W.9-10.3a)
    • Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole. (CCSS: W.9-10.3c)
  2. Write literary and narrative texts using a range of poetic techniques, figurative language, and graphic elements to engage or entertain the intended audience
  3. Refine the expression of voice and tone in a text by selecting and using appropriate vocabulary, sentence structure, and sentence organization
  4. Review and revise ideas and development in substantive ways to improve the depth of ideas and vividness of supporting details
  5. Explain strengths and weaknesses of own writing and the writing of others using criteria (e.g., checklists, scoring guides)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why does descriptive language make writing more appealing to the readers?
  2. Would people want to read texts that have no organizational structure? Why?
  3. Why is it important for authors to be able to develop texts that have an organized theme?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Consumers enjoy reading books with rich, descriptive language so they can picture what they are reading.
  2. Reporters and columnists at newspapers accept improvements in their writing to improve their work.
  3. Business workers are self-directed and rewarded for their efforts when they refine their writing to engage the reader.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers use descriptive language in their texts to make them more appealing to the reader.
  2. Writers know that revision, editing comments, and feedback strengthen a text.
  3. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 9-10. (CCSS: WHST.9-10.1-6 and 10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Informational and persuasive texts develop a topic and establish a controlling idea or thesis with relevant support

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. (CCSS: W.9-10.1)
    • Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. (CCSS: W.9-10.1a)
    • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level and concerns. (CCSS: W.9-10.1b)
    • Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. (CCSS: W.9-10.1c)
    • Use appropriate rhetorical appeals and genre to engage and guide the intended audience
    • Anticipate and address readers' biases and expectations
    • Revise ideas and structure to improve depth of information and logic of organization
    • Explain and imitate emotional, logical, and ethical appeals used by writers who are trying to persuade an audience
    • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. (CCSS: W.9-10.1d)
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. (CCSS: W.9-10.1e)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why should an author plan with clarity what the reader is expecting in the piece?
  2. How does an author monitor his/her work if the author is biased? What clues make the reader sense bias?
  3. What makes a descriptive text appeal to certain audiences?
  4. Why is it essential to explain technical terms and notations in writing?
  5. Do all audiences need this type of explanation? Why or why not?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Authors share ideas with a wider audience through writing.
  2. Researchers often submit an article stating their opinion about a current topic.
  3. Legal representatives prepare an argument by researching both sides and persuading an audience to one point of view by controlling one main idea.
  4. Rhetoric and ethical texts explain information with relevant supporting ideas.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers anticipate how biases play a role in the writing process. They try to think about readers and how they may perceive what the author is writing.
  2. Writers use different techniques to effectively support their arguments.
  3. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 9-10. (CCSS: WHST.9-10.1-6 and 10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Writing for grammar, usage, mechanics, and clarity requires ongoing refinements and revisions

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.9-10.2)
    • Identify comma splices and fused sentences in writing and revise to eliminate them
    • Distinguish between phrases and clauses and use this knowledge to write varied, strong, correct, complete sentences
    • Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation. (CCSS: L.9-10.2b)
    • Spell correctly. (CCSS: L.9-10.2c)
  2. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in expectations 1 and 2 above.) (CCSS: W.9-10.4)
  3. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (CCSS: W.9-10.5)
  4. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology's capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically. (CCSS: W.9-10.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What message does an author give a reader if there are flaws and errors in grammar and punctuation?
  2. What are the benefits of using computer-based tools for grammar support? What are the cautions of using these tools?
  3. What is meant by an obscure or oblique reference?
  4. Why should the writer beware when using a reference that may be obscure?
  5. When a writer has text at an adequate phase, is it necessary to keep tweaking it? Why or why not?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Learning to rewrite with improvements creates a thoughtful, thorough writer.
  2. Artificial intelligence software is sophisticated enough to correct and complete unfinished sentences.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers review work for clarity and the match it has to their audience.
  2. Good writers are always highly valued.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Stylistic devices and descriptive details in literary and narrative texts are organized for a variety of audiences and purposes and evaluated for quality

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences. (CCSS: W.8.3)
    • Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically. (CCSS: W.8.3a)
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters. (CCSS: W.8.3b)
    • Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events. (CCSS: W.8.3c)
    • Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events. (CCSS: W.8.3d)
    • Establish and maintain a controlling idea appropriate to audience and purpose
    • Integrate the use of organizing techniques that break up sequential presentation of chronology in a story (use of foreshadowing; starting in the middle of the action, then filling in background information using flashbacks)
    • Write using poetic techniques (alliteration, onomatopoeia); figurative language (simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole); and graphic elements (capital letters, line length, word position) for intended effect
    • Express voice and tone and influence readers' perceptions by varying vocabulary, sentence structure, and descriptive details
    • Use mentor text/authors to help craft appropriate technique
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events. (CCSS: W.8.3e)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What are the elements of a well-developed character?
  2. Why is visual imagery a skill that an author uses to create tone?
  3. What makes characters interesting to the reader?
  4. How does foreshadowing create connections for the reader?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Readers who study key story elements will enhance their work as writers.
  2. People who monitor what they are reading and attend to how a text is organized become more organized writers.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers realize the importance and relevance of the setting.
  2. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: WHST.6-8.1-6 and 10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Ideas and supporting details in informational and persuasive texts are organized for a variety of audiences and purposes and evaluated for quality

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. (CCSS: W.8.1)
    • Develop texts that offer a comparison, show cause and effect, or support a point
    • Write and justify a personal interpretation of literary or informational text that includes a thesis, supporting details from the literature, and a conclusion
    • Select and use appropriate rhetorical techniques (such as asking questions, using humor, etc.) for a variety of purposes
    • Use specific details and references to text or relevant citations to support focus or judgment
    • Use planning strategies to select and narrow topic
    • Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. (CCSS: W.8.1a)
    • Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. (CCSS: W.8.1b)
    • Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. (CCSS: W.8.1c)
    • Establish and maintain a formal style. (CCSS: W.8.1d)
    • Explain and imitate emotional and logical appeals used by writers who are trying to persuade an audience
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. (CCSS: W.8.1e)
  2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. (CCSS: W.8.2)
    • Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. (CCSS: W.8.2a)
    • Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples. (CCSS: W.8.2b)
    • Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts. (CCSS: W.8.2c)
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. (CCSS: W.8.2d)
    • Establish and maintain a formal style. (CCSS: W.8.2e)
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented. (CCSS: W.8.2f)
    • Elaborate to give detail, add depth, and continue the flow of an idea

Inquiry Questions:

  1. When tools do readers use to summarize ideas as they read?
  2. Why do authors like to persuade readers?
  3. If you could persuade someone to do something that you wanted, what would that be? How might you go about persuading them in writing?
  4. What types of words do authors use when they are trying to convince or persuade others to do what they want?
  5. When can an author's influence or persuasion be dangerous? Helpful?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Convincing someone to vote for a candidate in an election usually requires comparisons, details and citations.
  2. Consumers Reports gathers, analyzes, and publishes product comparisons that evaluate for quality.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers know how important it is to connect prior knowledge with new information.
  2. Writers write for pleasure and to influence people.
  3. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: WHST.6-8.1-6 and 10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Editing writing for grammar, usage, mechanics, and clarity is an essential trait of a well-written document

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.8.1)
    • Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences. (CCSS: L.8.1a)
    • Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice. (CCSS: L.8.1b)
    • Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood. (CCSS: L.8.1c)
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood. (CCSS: L.8.1d)
    • Use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs correctly in sentences
    • Combine sentences with subordinate conjunctions
    • Use subject-verb agreement with intervening phrases and clauses
    • Identify main and subordinate clauses and use that knowledge to write varied, strong, correct, complete sentences
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.8.2)
    • Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break. (CCSS: L.8.2a)
    • Format and punctuate dialogue correctly
    • Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission. (CCSS: L.8.2b)
    • Spell correctly. (CCSS: L.8.2c)
  3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (CCSS: L.8.3)
    • Use verbs in the active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects (e.g., emphasizing the actor or the action; expressing uncertainty or describing a state contrary to fact). (CCSS: L.8.3a)
  4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (CCSS: W.8.4)
  5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (CCSS: W.8.5)
  6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others. (CCSS: W.8.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does the use of correct grammar, usage, and mechanics add clarity to writing?
  2. How can various tools help a writer edit work?
  3. What are some common punctuation errors? How can writers avoid these challenges in the future?
  4. When do writers use software tools in their writing?
  5. When is it beneficial to use the thesaurus?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Writing guides are used as an essential tool for making a piece of writing professional.
  2. Job interviews often include the evaluation of correct grammar and the request for a writing sample.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers often use the tools from editing software programs, but don't want to become dependent on them so they will try to figure it out on their own and then double-check their work using the tools.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Seventh Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Composing literary and narrative texts that incorporate a range of stylistic devices demonstrates knowledge of genre features

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences. (CCSS: W.7.3)
    • Use a variety of planning strategies to generate and organize ideas (such as brainstorming, mapping, graphic organizers)
    • Write using poetic techniques (alliteration, onomatopoeia, rhyme scheme, repetition); figurative language (simile, metaphor, personification); and graphic elements (capital letters, line length, word position) typical of the chosen genre
    • Use a range of appropriate genre features (engaging plot, dialogue, stanza breaks) to develop and organize texts
    • Establish a central idea, define a clear focus for each section of the text (paragraphs, verses), and use transitional words and phrases to link ideas and sections
    • Decide on the content and placement of descriptive and sensory details within the text to address the targeted audience and purpose
    • Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically. (CCSS: W.7.3a)
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters. (CCSS: W.7.3b)
    • Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another. (CCSS: W.7.3c)
    • Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events. (CCSS: W.7.3d)
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events. (CCSS: W.7.3e)
  2. Revise writing to strengthen the clarity and vividness of voice, tone, and ideas

Inquiry Questions:

  1. In what ways does an author use the setting to create a mood for the story?
  2. What inferences can a reader make about different character types? What aids help make that inference?
  3. Why do organized events require a particular sequence?
  4. How might the outcome have been different if the character had made a different decision?
  5. What visual clues does a writer give about the setting of a story by using only the words of the text?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Readers who think about character traits make deeper connections to what they are reading.
  2. Magazines and comic books rely heavily on engaging plot, graphic elements, and poetic technique.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers know the story elements to help them organize thinking as they craft their own stories.
  2. Writers use figurative language, metaphor, and other techniques in their writing.
  3. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: WHST.6-8.1-6 and 10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Organization is used when composing informational and persuasive texts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. (CCSS: W.7.1)
    • Develop texts that explain a process; define a problem and offer a solution; or support an opinion
    • Generate support from a variety of primary or secondary sources, such as interviews, electronic resources, periodicals, and literary texts
    • Reach an authentic audience with a piece of informational or persuasive writing
    • Explain and imitate emotional appeals used by writers who are trying to persuade an audience
    • Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. (CCSS: W.7.1a)
    • Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. (CCSS: W.7.1b)
    • Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence. (CCSS: W.7.1c)
    • Establish and maintain a formal style. (CCSS: W.7.1d)
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. (CCSS: W.7.1e)
  2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. (CCSS: W.7.2)
    • Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. (CCSS: W.7.2a)
    • Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples. (CCSS: W.7.2b)
    • Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts. (CCSS: W.7.2c)
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. (CCSS: W.7.2d)
    • Establish and maintain a formal style. (CCSS: W.7.2e)
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented. (CCSS: W.7.2f)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do different references enhance readers' thinking about writing?
  2. Why does word choice play such an important part in writing?
  3. How can a writer use his/her influence to persuade readers?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Hard-hitting and exciting television interviews always begin with well-thought out and organized questions.
  2. Electronic race tracks, video games, and search tools are written using adapted software systems.

Nature Of:

  1. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: WHST.6-8.1-6 and 10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Editing writing for proper grammar, usage, mechanics, and clarity improves written work

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.7.2)
    • Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives (e.g., It was a fascinating, enjoyable movie but not He wore an old[,] green shirt). (CCSS: L.7.2a)
    • Spell correctly. (CCSS: L.7.2b)
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.7.1)
    • Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences. (CCSS: L.7.1a)
    • Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas. (CCSS: L.7.1b)
    • Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers. (CCSS: L.7.1c)
  3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (CCSS: L.7.3)
  4. Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy. (CCSS: L.7.3a)Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (CCSS: W.7.4)
  5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (CCSS.W.7.5)
    • Use punctuation correctly (commas and parentheses to offset parenthetical elements; colons to introduce a list; and hyphens)
    • Write and punctuate compound and complex sentences correctly
    • Vary sentences using prepositional phrases, ensuring that subjects and verbs agree in the presence of intervening phrases
    • Use pronoun-antecedent agreement including indefinite pronouns
    • Write with consistent verb tense across paragraphs
    • Use adjectives and adverbs correctly in sentences to describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs
    • Combine sentences with coordinate conjunctions
    • Improve word choice by using a variety of references, such as a thesaurus
  6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources. (CCSS: W.7.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do transition words create fluency in writing?
  2. What are other purposes of transitions?
  3. How can use of vocabulary help or hinder a piece of writing?
  4. When does a writer know he/she has done enough editing?
  5. How does editing make someone a better writer?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Student council campaign speeches, posters, campaign buttons, and jingles take time and editing to build.
  2. The grit required in improving punctuation and word choice distinguishes an effective communicator from one who just uses ink.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers can connect prior knowledge with new information to help solve problems.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Sixth Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Writing literary genres for intended audiences and purposes requires ideas, organization, and voice

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences. (CCSS: W.6.3)
    • Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically. (CCSS: W.6.3a)
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters. (CCSS: W.6.3b)
    • Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another. (CCSS: W.6.3c)
    • Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events. (CCSS: W.6.3d)
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events. (CCSS: W.6.3e)
  2. Employ a range of planning strategies to generate descriptive and sensory details (webbing, free writing, graphic organizers)
  3. Use a range of poetic techniques (alliteration, onomatopoeia, rhyme scheme); figurative language (simile, metaphor, personification); and graphic elements (capital letters, line length, word position) to express personal or narrative voice in texts
  4. Organize literary and narrative texts using conventional organizational patterns of the chosen genre
  5. Use literary elements of a text (well-developed characters, setting, dialogue, conflict) to present ideas in a text
  6. Use word choice, sentence structure, and sentence length to create voice and tone in writing

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What descriptors help the reader visualize the character, setting, and plot in a composition?
  2. What language brings a piece of writing to life for the reader?
  3. How can desktop and online resources be used to edit and critique a work in progress?

Relevance & Application:

  1. When working on an important project at work people can use a variety of online resources to expand their ideas.
  2. Pieces of electronic information can be stored for later use, application, and research.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers use the writing process, with a variety of media and technology tools to publish compositions.
  2. Writers use descriptive language to create mental pictures for the reader.
  3. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: WHST.6-8.1-6 and 10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Writing informational and persuasive genres for intended audiences and purposes require ideas, organization, and voice develop

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. (CCSS: W.6.1)
    • Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly. (CCSS: W.6.1a)
    • Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. (CCSS: W.6.1b)
    • Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons. (CCSS: W.6.1c)
    • Establish and maintain a formal style. (CCSS: W.6.1d)
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented. (CCSS: W.6.1e)
  2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. (CCSS: W.6.2)
    • Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. (CCSS: W.6.2a)
    • Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples. (CCSS: W.6.2b)
    • Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts. (CCSS: W.6.2c)
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. (CCSS: W.6.2d)
    • Establish and maintain a formal style. (CCSS: W.6.2e)
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented. (CCSS: W.6.2f)
  3. Write multi-paragraph compositions that have clear topic development, logical organization, effective use of detail, and variety in sentence structure
  4. Organize information into a coherent essay or report with a thesis statement in the introduction and transition sentences to link paragraphs
  5. Write to pursue a personal interest, to explain, or to persuade
  6. Write to analyze informational texts (explains the steps in a scientific investigation)
  7. Analyze and improve clarity of paragraphs and transitions
  8. Select vocabulary and information to enhance the central idea
  9. Identify persuasive elements in a peer's writing and critique the effectiveness

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why is relevance so important when someone is writing?
  2. How do writers monitor their work to include information that is relevant to the topic?
  3. How do writers improve the organization of a piece of writing?
  4. How is word selection important to a piece of writing?
  5. If strong, well-selected vocabulary is used, what might a reader say to the author?
  6. How does text organization help the reader understand writing?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Before a project is turned in to a supervisor, people work with a co-worker to edit and revise their work.
  2. Successful revision includes rereading, reflecting, rethinking, and rewriting.
  3. Choosing the right words to communicate thoughts helps deliver a clear message.
  4. Working together, a written piece can reflect valued points of view and motivate others.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers understand that compositions may be used to convey ideas, evoke emotion, persuade, or entertain.
  2. Creative and colorful writing persuades and influences events.
  3. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: WHST.6-8.1-6 and 10)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Specific editing for grammar, usage, mechanics, and clarity gives writing its precision and legitimacy

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.6.1)
    • Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive). (CCSS: L.6.1a)
    • Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves). (CCSS: L.6.1b)
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person. (CCSS: L.6.1c)
    • Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents). (CCSS: L.6.1d)
    • Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others' writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language. (CCSS: L.6.1e)
    • Identify fragments and run-ons and revise sentences to eliminate them
    • Use coordinating conjunctions in compound sentences
    • Maintain consistent verb tense within paragraph.
    • Choose adverbs to describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.6.2)
    • Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements. (CCSS: L.6.2a)
    • Spell correctly. (CCSS: L.6.2b)
  3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (CCSS: L.6.3)
    • Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style. (CCSS: L.6.3a)
    • Maintain consistency in style and tone. (CCSS: L.6.3b)
  4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in grade level expectations 1 and 2 above.) (CCSS: W.6.4)
  5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (CCSS: W.6.5)
  6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting. (CCSS: W.6.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. If piece of writing has many errors or is difficult to read, what are readers' thoughts about that piece?
  2. How can writers create strong sentence fluency in their work?
  3. What author uses language and organization that makes his/her work enjoyable to read?
  4. How do writers monitor their spelling if spell-check is not available?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Written language differs from spoken language in terms of vocabulary, structure, and context.
  2. Learning to edit writing is important because it demonstrates the work to others who may be reading it (Locate examples of public places where there is poor grammar or poor spelling. Write a letter to a local business asking for support for a class project. Use electronic resources to edit and revise your project.)

Nature Of:

  1. Writers pay attention to the way sentences start, which creates more sentence fluency in their writing.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. The recursive writing process contributes to the creative and unique literary genres for a variety of audiences and purposes

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. (CCSS: W.5.3)
    • Create personal and fictional narratives with a strong personal voice
    • Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. (CCSS: W.5.3a)
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations. (CCSS: W.5.3b)
    • Use a variety of transitional words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events. (CCSS: W.5.3c)
    • Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely. (CCSS: W.5.3d)
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events. (CCSS: W.5.3e)
  2. Write poems using poetic techniques (alliteration, onomatopoeia); figurative language (simile, metaphor); and graphic elements (capital letters, line length)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How can the use of correct vocabulary, grammar, usage, and mechanics add clarity to writing?
  2. How can various tools help a writer edit and revise written work?
  3. What do authors do to ensure that they have a topic and supporting details?
  4. How do graphic organizers or planning guides increase the effectiveness of a writer?
  5. What is the primary message that the author wants readers to interpret from the passage? Where is the evidence from the text?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Writing about personal experiences is an important step in expression.
  2. Including story elements in writing provides the reader with a more complete product.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers use all of the elements of a good story in their writing and have created a systematic plan for including each of them.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. The recursive writing process creates stronger informational and persuasive texts for a variety of audiences and purposes

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. (CCSS: W.5.1)
    • Include cause and effect, opinions, and other opposing viewpoints in persuasive writing
    • Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer's purpose. (CCSS: W.5.1a)
    • Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details. (CCSS: W.5.1b)
    • Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically). (CCSS: W.5.1c)
    • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. (CCSS: W.5.1d)
  2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. (CCSS: W.5.2)
    • Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. (CCSS: W.5.2a)
    • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic. (CCSS: W.5.2b)
    • Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially). (CCSS: W.5.2c)
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. (CCSS: W.5.2d)
    • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented. (CCSS: W.5.2e)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What is the purpose of writing for different audiences?
  2. How does revising writing build new skills for writers?
  3. How did people gather information before the use of computers?
  4. If someone asked you the fastest, most efficient way to gather information about ________, what would you tell them and why?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Successful writing has specific organizational features, style, and craft elements. (Write a persuasive letter to an adult using mature tone and vocabulary. Select a planning guide that will be useful to plan writing.)
  2. Technology is used to assist in locating resources to support writers' work.
  3. Learning to summarize and write brief explanations is a lifelong skill that that will carry over into the workplace or college.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers think about the audience that they are writing for to help them organize their thoughts.
  2. Writers use technology as part of their resources to be more organized and thorough when they write.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Conventions apply consistently when evaluating written texts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.5.2)
    • Use punctuation to separate items in a series. (CCSS: L.5.2a)
    • Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence. (CCSS: L.5.2b)
    • Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It's true, isn't it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?). (CCSS: L.5.2c)
    • Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works. (CCSS: L.5.2d)
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed. (CCSS: L.5.2e)
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.5.1)
    • Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences. (CCSS: L.5.1a)
    • Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses. (CCSS: L.5.1b)
    • Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions. (CCSS: L.5.1c)
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense. (CCSS: L.5.1d)
    • Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor). (CCSS: L.5.1e)
  3. Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style. (CCSS: L.5.1f)Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (CCSS: W.5.4)
  4. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (CCSS: W.5.5)
  5. With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of two pages in a single sitting. (CCSS: W.5.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do writers prepare their writing for different audiences?
  2. How would writing for our first grade buddies be different than the writing that you would do to convince or persuade our principal to let us have music day?
  3. How do writers organize their thinking to include the audience they are addressing?
  4. Which graphic organizer that we have used may assist you with your planning?
  5. What guidelines from our paragraph writing were the most helpful to you as you began to construct your paragraphs?

Relevance & Application:

  1. People can use an electronic thesaurus to enrich vocabulary in text. (Write letters to "writing pals" at a school in another community. Design a thank-you note for the custodian or parent volunteers.)
  2. Written language differs from spoken language in terms of vocabulary, structure, and context.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers are thoughtful of the language they use in their writing.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fourth Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. The recursive writing process is used to create a variety of literary genres for an intended audience

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. (CCSS: W.4.1)
    • Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer's purpose. (CCSS: W.4.1a)
    • Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details. (CCSS: W.4.1b)
    • Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition). (CCSS: W.4.1c)
    • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. (CCSS: W.4.1d)
  2. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. (CCSS: W.4.3)
    • Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. (CCSS: W.4.3a)
    • Choose planning strategies to support text structure and intended outcome
    • Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations. (CCSS: W.4.3b)
    • Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events. (CCSS: W.4.3c)
    • Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely. (CCSS: W.4.3d)
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events. (CCSS: W.4.3e)
  3. Write poems that express ideas or feelings using imagery, figurative language, and sensory details

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How are literary genres different in form and substance?
  2. How does a graphic organizer assist a writer?
  3. How does writing create a visual image for the reader?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Different forms of literary genre can express the same ideas in different ways.
  2. Learning to write with strong words will increase how readers will perceive the messages writers are trying to convey. (Write about an event using formal and informal language.)
  3. Writers who connect their personal experiences to writing will increase their skills.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers include personal experiences in their writing.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Informational and persuasive texts use the recursive writing process

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. (CCSS: W.4.2)
    • Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. (CCSS: W.4.2a)
    • Choose planning strategies to support text structure and intended outcome
    • Identify a text structure appropriate to purpose (sequence, chronology, description, explanation, comparison-and-contrast
    • Organize relevant ideas and details to convey a central idea or prove a point
    • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic. (CCSS: W.4.2b)
    • Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because). (CCSS: W.4.2c)
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. (CCSS: W.4.2d)
    • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented. (CCSS: W.4.2e)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Which tools are available to assist the writer in planning, drafting, and revising personal writing?
  2. How is word choice affected by audience and purpose?
  3. How are writers persuasive without being biased?

Relevance & Application:

  1. When preparing for a presentation writers can use electronic resources to add graphics and visual effects to a project.
  2. Businesses use proposals to persuade consumers to buy their products.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers use transition words in their writing to make transitions clearer and easier to follow.
  2. Writers will sometimes use a visual that will help convey their message.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Correct sentence formation, grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling are applied to make the meaning clear to the reader

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (CCSS: W.4.4)
  2. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (CCSS: W.4.5)
  3. With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting. (CCSS: W.4.6)
  4. Use correct format (indenting paragraphs, parts of a letter, poem, etc.) for intended purpose
  5. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (CCSS: L.4.3)
    • Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely. (CCSS: L.4.3a)
    • Choose punctuation for effect. (CCSS: L.4.3b)
    • Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion). (CCSS: L.4.3c)
  6. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.4.1)
    • Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why). (CCSS: L.4.1a)
    • Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses. (CCSS: L.4.1b)
    • Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions. (CCSS: L.4.1c)
    • Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag). (CCSS: L.4.1d)
    • Form and use prepositional phrases. (CCSS: L.4.1e)
    • Use compound subjects (Tom and Pat went to the store) and compound verbs (Harry thought and worried about the things he said to Jane) to create sentence fluency in writing
    • Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons. (CCSS: L.4.1f)
    • Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their). (CCSS: L.4.1g)
  7. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.4.2)
    • Use correct capitalization. (CCSS: L.4.2a)
    • Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text. (CCSS: L.4.2b)
    • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence. (CCSS: L.4.2c)
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed. (CCSS: L.4.2d)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How is reading actually speech that has been written down?
  2. How do writers use technology to support the writing process?
  3. How would you find meaning in a piece of writing that used no punctuation?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Writers organize reports differently than literary writing.
  2. Writers use writing to explore ideas.
  3. Proper usage of verbs is important in speaking and writing.
  4. Friends and family can sometimes only truly understand your feelings when you use accurate punctuation and spelling.
  5. Writers use a range of resources including technology as revising and editing tools.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers can edit their own work.
  2. Writers use quotation marks in their writing to show dialogue in their work.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Third Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. A writing process is used to plan, draft, and write a variety of literary genres

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons. (CCSS: W.3.1)
    • Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons. (CCSS: W.3.1a)
    • Provide reasons that support the opinion. (CCSS: W.3.1b)
    • Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons. (CCSS: W.3.1c)
    • Provide a concluding statement or section. (CCSS: W.3.1d)
    • Brainstorm ideas for writing
  2. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. (CCSS: W.3.3)
    • Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. (CCSS: W.3.3a)
    • Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations. (CCSS: W.3.3b)
    • Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order. (CCSS: W.3c)
    • Provide a sense of closure. (CCSS: W.3.3d)
  3. Write descriptive poems using figurative language

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How can thoughts and ideas be organized to prepare for writing?
  2. When are transition words appropriate to use in writing?
  3. What is a primary use of a graphic organizer?
  4. When people brainstorm, why do they write down all ideas without judgment?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Authors choose graphic organizers appropriate for the purpose of their writing and utilize the information to create a well-written piece.
  2. Writers/authors present points of view to inform, entertain, and communicate a variety of ideas and opinions and to understand that language has a clear beginning, middle, and end.
  3. Ghost stories and mysteries often are written with the outcome in mind.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers know that a story needs a beginning, middle, and end.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. A writing process is used to plan, draft, and write a variety of informational texts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. (CCSS: W.3.2)
    • Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension. (CCSS: W.3.2a)
    • State main ideas and include sufficient details or facts for appropriate depth of information (naming, describing, explaining, comparing, use of visual images)
    • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details. (CCSS: W.3.2b)
    • Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information. (CCSS: W.3c)
    • Provide a concluding statement or section. (CCSS: W.3.2d)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do transitions support fluent writing?
  2. Why is it necessary to connect ideas when writing?
  3. How do authors know what information is accurate?
  4. How do authors know what information is credible?
  5. Why would it be important for authors to label illustrations, photos, graphs, charts, or other media?
  6. What forms of writing assist writers in sharing information?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Reporters and journalists will sometimes write about one topic from different points of view.
  2. Today there is so much information; people need skills to help them sort the information and make sense of it so it can be useful.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers can describe events or people fluently.
  2. Writers summarize information by using only the important details.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Correct grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling are used when writing

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. (CCSS: W.3.4)
  2. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (CCSS: W.3.5)
  3. With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others. (CCSS: W.3.6)
  4. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (CCSS: L.3.3)
    • Choose words and phrases for effect. (CCSS: L.3.3a)
    • Recognize and observe differences between the conventions of spoken and written standard English. (CCSS: L.3.3b)
  5. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.3.1)
    • Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences. (CCSS: L.3.1a)
    • Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns. (CCSS: L.3.1b)
    • Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood). (CCSS: L.3.1c)
    • Form and use regular and irregular verbs. (CCSS: L.3.1d)
    • Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses. (CCSS: L.3.1e)
    • Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement. (CCSS: L.3.1f)
    • Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified. (CCSS: L.3.1g)
    • Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions. (CCSS: L.3.1h)
    • Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences. (CCSS: L.3.1i)
    • Vary sentence beginnings, and use long and short sentences to create sentence fluency in longer texts
  6. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.3.2)
    • Capitalize appropriate words in titles. (CCSS: L.3.2a)
    • Use commas in addresses. (CCSS: L.3.2b)
    • Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue. (CCSS: L.3.2c)
    • Form and use possessives. (CCSS: L.3.2d)
    • Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness). (CCSS: L.3.2e)
    • Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words. (CCSS: L.3.2f)
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings. (CCSS: L.3.2g)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does punctuation help people understand what they read and write?
  2. What resources can be used to help spell words correctly?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Desktop tools, spell-check and grammar-check are used to edit written work.
  2. Newspapers, newsletter and Internet web pages rely on precise and descriptive writing to inform or entertain.

Nature Of:

  1. Written symbols show both meaning and expression.
  2. Writers know that words can have identical pronunciations but differ in spelling and meaning (you/ewe, eye/I).

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Second Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Exploring the writing process helps to plan and draft a variety of literary genres

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section. (CCSS: W.2.1)
  2. Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure. (CCSS: W.2.3)
  3. Organize ideas using pictures, graphic organizers, or story maps
  4. Write simple, descriptive poems
  5. Write with precise nouns, active verbs, and descriptive adjectives
  6. Use a knowledge of structure and crafts of various forms of writing gained through reading and listening to mentor texts
  7. Develop characters both internally (thoughts and feelings) and externally (physical features, expressions, clothing)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How are different literary genres different in form and substance?
  2. What are two characteristics of the person you are describing?
  3. Why do short poems still have an important message?
  4. How do planning frames (graphic organizers, lists, photos, or drawings) help writers as they write a story?
  5. How do authors collect topics for writing?
  6. How might authors create an inviting beginning and satisfying ending?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Authors will write funny poems and short stories for readers to enjoy.
  2. Parents like to read fairy tales to their children before they go to bed.
  3. The ability to read and understand poems and fictional stories will assist in building metacognition, which will aid in comprehending harder text.
  4. Creative approaches to writing and story craft distinguish best-selling authors from ordinary writers.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers think about character traits to help them include more interesting details in their writing.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Exploring the writing process helps to plan and draft a variety of simple informational texts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section. (CCSS: W.2.2)
  2. Write letters and "how-to's" (procedures, directions, recipes) that follow a logical order and appropriate format
  3. Organize informational texts using main ideas and specific supporting details
  4. Organize ideas using a variety of pictures, graphic organizers or bulleted lists
  5. Use relevant details when responding in writing to questions about texts
  6. State a focus when responding to a given question, and use details from text to support a given focus
  7. Apply appropriate transition words to writing

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What are different forms of informational writing?
  2. Why is it important to writers to know who will be reading their work?
  3. How is report writing different from storytelling?
  4. How do writers use technology to support the writing process?
  5. How do authors stay focused on one topic throughout a piece of writing?
  6. How might technology impact the writing process for informational texts?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Cooks write their recipes step-by-step so the readers can follow the directions easily.
  2. Parents write to their children who live far away using conventional and digital means.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers use their own experiences in their writing to make connections.
  2. Writers work with peers to create organized pieces of writing.
  3. Writers plan and organize information with their audience and purpose in mind.
  4. Writers reread and revise while drafting.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Appropriate spelling, capitalization, grammar, and punctuation are used and applied when writing

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.2.1)
    • Use collective nouns (e.g., group). (CCSS: L.2.1a)
    • Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish). (CCSS: L.2.1b)
    • Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves). (CCSS: L.2.1c)
    • Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told). (CCSS: L.2.1d)
    • Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified. (CCSS: L.2.1e)
    • Apply accurate subject-verb agreement while writing
    • Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy). (CCSS: L.2.1f)
    • Vary sentence beginning
    • Spell high-frequency words correctly
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.2.2)
    • Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names. (CCSS: L.2.2a)
    • Use commas in greetings and closings of letters. (CCSS: L.2.2b)
    • Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives. (CCSS: L.2.2c)
    • Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage ? badge; boy ? boil). (CCSS: L.2.2d)
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings. (CCSS: L.2.2e)
  3. With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing. (CCSS: W.2.5)
  4. With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (CCSS: W.2.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How can spelling change the meaning of a word?
  2. How can punctuation change the meaning of a sentence?
  3. What is the primary use of the apostrophe in contractions?
  4. Why is punctuation used for many different purposes in writing?
  5. Why are uppercase/capital letters important in writing?

Relevance & Application:

  1. The meaning of a sentence can be changed by changing the order of the words in the sentence. (He can run. Can he run?)
  2. Knowing when to capitalize letters will help readers understand writing.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers know that endings change words.
  2. Writers revise their writing to choose better words to communicate what they want to say.
  3. Writers use proper punctuation in their writing.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: First Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Exploring the writing process develops ideas for writing texts that carry meaning

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure. (CCSS: W.1.1)
  2. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure. (CCSS: W.1.2)
  3. Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure. (CCSS: W.1.3)
  4. With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed. (CCSS: W.1.5)
  5. Use pictures or graphic organizers to plan writing
  6. With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (CCSS: W.1.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How can thoughts and ideas be organized to prepare for writing?
  2. Why is it important to plan before beginning to write?
  3. How can a graphic organizer help writers plan their writing?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Graphic organizers help to plan writing projects.
  2. Simple sentences can be expanded using adjectives or phrases. (The boy plays. The strong boy plays. The strong boy plays in the sandbox.)
  3. Well-written thoughts are shared in a variety of ways (online communities, magazines, news stories).

Nature Of:

  1. Writers use language that has a clear beginning, middle, and end.
  2. Writers must express ideas clearly because the reader cannot ask the author for clarification.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Appropriate spelling, conventions, and grammar are applied when writing

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.1.1)
    • Print all upper- and lowercase letters. (CCSS: L.1.1a)
    • Use common, proper, and possessive nouns. (CCSS: L.1.1b)
    • Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop). (CCSS: L.1.1c)
    • Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their, anyone, everything). (CCSS: L.1.1d)
    • Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home). (CCSS: L.1.1e)
    • Use frequently occurring adjectives. (CCSS: L.1.1f)
    • Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so, because). (CCSS: L.1.1g)
    • Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives). (CCSS: L.1.1h)
    • Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward). (CCSS: L.1.1i)
    • Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts. (CCSS: L.1.1j)
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.1.2)
    • Write complete simple sentences.
    • Capitalize dates and names of people. (CCSS: L.1.2a)
    • Use end punctuation for sentences. (CCSS: L.1.2b)
    • Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series. (CCSS: L.1.2c)
    • Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words. (CCSS: L.1.2d)
    • Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions. (CCSS: L.1.2e)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do phonemes (speech sounds) map to graphemes (letters and letter clusters) to form words?
  2. How do punctuation marks show expression and pauses in writing?
  3. How do capital letters show importance?
  4. How can a writer show excitement in a sentence? (exclamation mark)

Relevance & Application:

  1. Question marks are often used in children's games.
  2. Phonetic patterns are the bases of nursery rhymes and children's songs.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers know how to spell many words.
  2. Writers hold their pencil correctly.
  3. Writers use capital letters at the beginning of sentences.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Kindergarten
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Text types and purposes, labels, and familiar words are used to communicate information and ideas

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is...). (CCSS: W.K.1)
  2. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic. (CCSS: W.K.2)
  3. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened. (CCSS: W.K.3)
  4. With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed. (CCSS: W.K.5)
  5. With guidance and support from adults, explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (CCSS: W.K.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do people share ideas with print?
  2. What happened in this story? (If needed, prompt with a sentence stem.)
  3. Why did the author like writing this story? (He/she likes dogs.)
  4. What comes at the beginning of each sentence? What comes at the end?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Family photo albums are sequenced and labeled to tell a simple story.
  2. Drawing the scenes from an oral tale illustrates a person's interpretation of a story.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers can communicate their ideas in many forms.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Appropriate mechanics and conventions are used to create simple texts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.K.1)
    • Print many upper- and lowercase letters. (CCSS: L.K.1a)
    • Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs. (CCSS: L.K.1b)
    • Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes). (CCSS: L.K.1c)
    • Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how). (CCSS: L.K.1d)
    • Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with). (CCSS: L.K.1e)
    • Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities. (CCSS: L.K.1f)
    • Use proper spacing between words
    • Write left to right and top to bottom
    • Use appropriate pencil grip
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.K.2)
    • Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I. (CCSS: L.K.2a)
    • Recognize and name end punctuation. (CCSS: L.K.2b)
    • Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes). (CCSS: L.K.2c)
    • Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships. (CCSS: L.K.2d)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does a sentence begin?
  2. How does a sentence end?
  3. How does a writer show that one sentence ends and another begins?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Phonetically spelled words usually are seen in favorite children's books.
  2. Video software has the advantage of audio and animation to emphasize the utility of punctuation and capital letters.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers use upper- and lowercase letters when appropriate.
  2. Writers use proper spacing between words.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Preschool
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Pictures express ideas

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Draw pictures to generate, represent, and express ideas or share information
  2. Orally describe or tell about a picture
  3. Use shapes, letter-like symbols, and letters to represent words or ideas
  4. Dictate ideas to an adult

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What do pictures tell us about this tale?
  2. How is color used to help describe the story?
  3. When are symbols like clues in a game?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Good readers can tell others about what they have just read (or heard).
  2. Telling others about the characters helps readers understand more about the people in the stories.
  3. Writers like to take picture walks through their books and tell others what the story is about.

Nature Of:

  1. Beginning writers know how to spell many simple words because they know the sounds the letters make.
  2. Letters are symbols used to represent speech sounds.
  3. Sounds in spoken words map to letters in printed words.
  4. Learning to share ideas is important so people know what others are thinking.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Letters are formed with accuracy

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Begin to develop proper pencil grip when drawing or writing
  2. Write and recognize letters in own name

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How is the first letter of someone's name different from the other letters?
  2. Why do writers use an uppercase letter at the beginning of names?
  3. How do writers indicate the end of a sentence?
  4. How do readers discriminate between symbols, digits, and letters?

Relevance & Application:

  1. English is written from left to right; Hebrew is written right to left.
  2. English words consist of letters; Hieroglyphic's consists of symbols.
  3. Spaces appear between the words in order to make meaning.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers know all of the letters in their name and can write it by themselves.
  2. Writers remember to leave a space between their first name and their last name because they are two different words.
  3. Writers can identify upper- and lowercase letters.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Twelfth Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Independent research designs articulate and defend information, conclusions, and solutions that address specific contexts and purposes

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Define and narrow a topic for self-designed research for a variety of purposes and audiences
  2. Critique research questions of self and others for bias and underlying assumptions
  3. Critique and defend sources and information based on credibility, relevance and appropriateness relative to context and purpose
  4. Design and defend a set of diverse research strategies (e.g. cross-referencing bibliographies, creating annotated bibliographies, researching source credentials) to identify information appropriate to the needs of a research question, hypothesis, or thesis statement
  5. Critique and defend evidence relative to its use to address a particular context and purpose
  6. Determine and use the appropriate style guide to govern format and documentation of quotations, paraphrases, and other information from a range of research sources

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do researchers identify a significant problem or issue to study?
  2. If an initial inquiry proves fruitless, how can they reformulate the research question to address an alternative topic, issue, or problem? (intellectual flexibility)
  3. To what extent can researchers compare and contrast their research conclusions/results with alternative conclusions/results? (breadth)
  4. How do researchers check for clarity and credentials of the contributing authors that they selected for their research?
  5. How do researchers check their resources and evaluate evidence to ensure that they were relevant and significant to the research question or purpose?
  6. How do researchers check their conclusion(s) for significance and accuracy?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Technology tools such as meters, lenses, data capture tools, and documented research archives accelerate all searches.
  2. Fact-checking tools help confirm the accuracy of self-designed research such as small business interests.
  3. Inventors in sports medicine speak to the breadth of issues related to a research topic but not necessarily addressed within the original research.
  4. Students use factual information to support their ideas to go to a certain college or the military.
  5. Data organization is a skill used in medical testing.
  6. Environmental leaders review research results to share with others. Reviewing research for personal use will support many personal and professional choices.
  7. Using the Internet to locate and converse with experts in the field can enhance your understanding and research.
  8. Following up on citations found in research articles online and in libraries helps us validate accuracy of information and deepen our understanding.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers must be flexible with their thinking so new learning can take place.
  2. People are consumers of information.
  3. People are generators of information.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Logical arguments distinguish facts from opinions; and evidence defines reasoned judgment

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Synthesize information to support a logical argument
  2. Distinguish between evidence and inferences
  3. Identify false premises or assumptions
  4. Analyze rhetorical devices used in own and others' appeals
  5. Summarize ideas that include alternate views, rich detail, well-developed paragraphs, and logical argumentation

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do authors measure the quality of their argument along the way?
  2. What criteria do authors use to evaluate the quality of their reasoning? (clarity, validity, logic, relevance, completeness, depth, breadth)
  3. When have you last heard a "pitch" based predominantly using assumption?
  4. When can a scattered argument ever be successful?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Editors at news agencies synthesize alternate views and vast appeals in order to make concise weekly editorials.
  2. Expensive purchases such as a car, home or college education are usually made after a first impressions and false evidence have been eliminated.
  3. Rhetorical devices are usually practiced and refined in most professions and jobs in order to advance reasoned activity.
  4. Recognizing the difference between primary and secondary sources and analyzing primary sources applying our own knowledge and perspective can lead to deeper understanding.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers are consumers of information.
  2. Researchers are generators of information.
  3. Investigative thinkers careful attend to language and the influence of bias or false premises

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eleventh Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Self-designed research provides insightful information, conclusions, and possible solutions

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (CCSS: W.11-12.7)
  2. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (CCSS: W.11-12.8)
  3. Evaluate and revise research questions for precision and clarity
  4. Evaluate quality, accuracy, and completeness of information and the bias, credibility and reliability of the sources
  5. Document sources of quotations, paraphrases, and other information, using a style sheet, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA)
  6. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (CCSS: W.11-12.9)
    • Apply grades 11-12 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics"). (CCSS: W.11-12.9a)
    • Apply grades 11-12 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses]"). (CCSS: W.11-12.9b)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do you know if an online source is credible?
  2. How can subjective viewpoints be used in research?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Representing and accurately citing data, conclusions, the opinions of others can be compromised if the researcher does not recognize his/her bias on the topic.
  2. Accurately documenting sources of information can prevent accusations of plagiarism which can sometimes lead to legal action.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers follow the reasoning that supports an argument or explanation and can assess whether the evidence provided is relevant and sufficient
  2. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 9-10. (CCSS: WHST.9-10.7-9)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Complex situations require critical thinking across multiple disciplines

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Analyze the logic of complex situations by questioning the purpose, question at issue, information, points of view, implications and consequences inferences, assumptions and concepts
  2. Evaluate strengths and weaknesses of their logic and logic of others by using criteria including relevance, clarity, accuracy, fairness, significance, depth, breadth, logic and precision
  3. Determine the extent to which they entered empathetically into competing points of view, exercised confidence in reason, recognized the limits of their knowledge on the topic (intellectual humility), explored alternative approaches to solving or addressing complex problems (intellectual flexibility), and were open to constructive critique (intellectual open-mindedness)
  4. Analyze and assess the logic of the interdisciplinary domains inherent in reasoning through complex situations
  5. Monitor and assess the extent to which their own beliefs and biases influenced their reactions to the viewpoints and logic of others

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do readers determine if the author(s) they are using are credible, biased on a topic or have a neutral, unbiased approach?
  2. As they read from multiple texts and across disciplines, how do people organize their thinking for depth of content understanding?
  3. Are there any disciplines of study which do not require critical thinking?
  4. When does logic undermine a discipline?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Presenters organize information and present it to others around a point of view.
  2. In the media world, people are bombarded with many pieces of information. Keen observing skills to sift through information for clarity, bias, and relevance help one to discriminate good information from faulty input when making informed decisions.
  3. Writers have strong influence on others' thinking. Good professors help students expand the ability to critically think and foster intellectual humility.
  4. Reading and participating in blogs give practice in applying critical thinking through the engagement with an authentic audience.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers must be flexible with their thinking, so new learning can take place.
  2. When researchers analyze and assess thinking, they attempt to be fair-minded and look for connections to other content areas.
  3. Investigative intellects can transform their ideas when being flexible, open-minded, empathetic, humble and confident in reason.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Evaluating quality reasoning includes the value of intellectual character such as humility, empathy, and confidence

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Analyze the purpose, question at issue, information, points of view, implications and consequences, inferences, assumptions, and concepts inherent in thinking
  2. Assess strengths and weaknesses of thinking and thinking of others by using criteria including relevance, clarity, accuracy, fairness, significance, depth, breadth, logic, and precision
  3. Determine the extent to which they entered empathetically into competing points of view, exercised confidence in reason, recognized the limits of their knowledge on the topic (intellectual humility), explored alternative approaches to solving or addressing complex problems (intellectual flexibility), were open to constructive critique (intellectual open-mindedness)
  4. Evaluate the reasoning of self and others for quality, strong-sense thinking

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does one analyze the logic of thinking?
  2. How does one evaluate the logic of thinking?
  3. What does it look like to see intellectual humility or intellectual arrogance?
  4. What types of complexities make it difficult for one to take apart his/her own thinking?
  5. What obstacles interfere with quality reasoning?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Intellectual open-mindedness challenges rules and traditions and can instigate tension in a society.
  2. The absence of logic and precision has steep consequences in medical, safety and judicial settings.
  3. Growing up is a lifelong event and most often is noticed when faced with differing information, points of view, assumptions, and inferences.
  4. Sociologists, anthropologists and historians make a living studying influence, bias, and patterns of quality thinking.
  5. Reading and participating in social networking sites such as blogs give practice in applying humility, empathy and confidence through the engagement with an authentic audience.

Nature Of:

  1. Evaluating quality logic and mental flexibility is a trait that becomes a habit which improves the thinking of others.
  2. Making connections and bringing fresh clarity to an intellectual assumption brings into mental focus the actual problem or a possible solution.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Tenth Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Collect, analyze, and evaluate information obtained from multiple sources to answer a question, propose solutions, or share findings and conclusions

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (CCSS: W.9-10.7)
  2. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (CCSS: W.9-10.8)
  3. Formulate research questions that are clear and precise
  4. Identify and evaluate potential sources of information for accuracy, reliability, validity, and timeliness
  5. Distinguish between types of evidence (e.g., expert testimony, analogies, anecdotes, statistics) and use a variety of types to support a particular research purpose
  6. Use in-text parenthetical citations to document sources of quotations, paraphrases and information
  7. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (CCSS: W.9-10.9)
    • Apply grades 9-10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]"). (CCSS: W.9-10.9)
    • Apply grades 9-10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning"). (CCSS: W.9-10.9)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does media influence the questions you ask about an issue?
  2. What is "strong" evidence?
  3. When does framing a question incorrectly set off a series of flawed evaluations?
  4. How can a group of different-minded opinion leaders weaken a central idea or search for solution?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Multiple sources are used to conduct second level claim checks on "so called" quality research (such as the Internet or library focus groups and polling).
  2. Clicker or opinion technology can pinpoint public trust in information.
  3. Students can locate experts in the field of their research using online resources and use technology tools such as Skype, email, and wikis to communicate with them to ask questions and seek answers.

Nature Of:

  1. We overcome initial limitations of information to make sense and propose solutions or findings.
  2. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 9-10. (CCSS: WHST.9-10.7-9)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. An author's reasoning is the essence of legitimate writing and requires evaluating text for validity and accuracy

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Analyze the logic (including assumptions and beliefs) and use of evidence (existing and missing information, primary sources, and secondary sources) used by two or more authors presenting similar or opposing arguments (such as articles by two political columnists that address the same issue)
  2. Evaluate the accuracy of the information in a text, citing text-based evidence, author's use of expert authority, and author's credibility to defend the evaluation

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Can one physically draw a line of reasoning?
  2. When does missing evidence possibly invent a new legitimate argument?
  3. If an author claims to be defenseless in a text, what authority does this give the reader?

Relevance & Application:

  1. With the accessibility and use of the Internet, individuals need to be able to synthesize and assess the information quickly.
  2. Critically evaluating online and print content will protect individuals from using incorrect or harmful information.
  3. Making judgments about daily experiences can result in improving the quality of life. (Analyzing medical research and procedures about anesthesia can save lives.)

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers evaluate circumstances that may occur and make informed judgments based on strong-sense critical thinking and use of resources.
  2. Researchers are persistent with work. When a decision or situation is new or questionable, the learner will look at multiple perspectives striving for validity or accuracy.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Ninth Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Informational materials, including electronic sources, need to be collected, evaluated, and analyzed for accuracy, relevance, and effectiveness for answering research questions

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Integrate information from different sources to research and complete a project
  2. Integrate information from different sources to form conclusions about an author's assumptions, biases, credibility, cultural and social perspectives, or world views
  3. Judge the usefulness of information based on relevance to purpose, source, objectivity, copyright date, cultural and world perspective (such as editorials), and support the decision
  4. Examine materials to determine appropriate primary and secondary sources to use for investigating a question, topic, or issue (e.g., library databases, print and electronic encyclopedia and other reference materials, pamphlets, book excerpts, online and print newspaper and magazine articles, letters to an editor, digital forums, oral records, research summaries, scientific and trade journals)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. When a researcher is "reflecting" on information to use in a project, what is actually happening in the thought pattern?
  2. When are multiple resources NOT HELPFUL?
  3. How do researchers plan for such challenges as little to no primary information?
  4. What was your most unusual source for a personal research project? What resource was the least useful and why?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Information from a variety sources is needed to conduct accurate, clear, and coherent research.
  2. Looking at multiple perspectives expands people's thinking and adds clarity to their own thoughts and words.
  3. Using information from many sources helps broaden ability to locate and use information.
  4. In the global society, multiple perspectives and a wide range of information are within easy reach and importantly applicable. Global perspectives can be obtained through participating in online social media networks.
  5. Global perspectives can be obtained through participating in online social media networks.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers are attentive to bias in resources and monitor their own writing and speaking for biases to assess and maintain their own credibility.
  2. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 9-10. (CCSS: WHST.9-10.7-9)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Effective problem-solving strategies require high-quality reasoning

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Analyze the purpose, question at issue, information, points of view, implications and consequences, inferences, assumptions and concepts inherent in thinking
  2. Assess strengths and weaknesses of their thinking and thinking of others by using criteria including relevance, clarity, accuracy, fairness, significance, depth, breadth, logic and precision
  3. Implement a purposeful and articulated process to solve a problem
  4. Monitor and reflect on the rationale for, and effectiveness of, choices made throughout the problem-solving process

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How is reasoning used in problem solving?
  2. Why is it important to state the problem with clarity before beginning a research project?
  3. How do you monitor what they are reading for fairness and accuracy?
  4. What assumptions need to be asked about "relevant and irrelevant" information when solving a problem?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Problem-solving strategies are used in all content areas.
  2. Problem solving is a daily expectation.
  3. Learning to reason supports relationships and the ability to solve problems that arise at home or at work.
  4. Everyone benefits from finding new ways to solve problems.
  5. Recognition of multiple perspectives is important in this global society.
  6. Online social networking tools allow access to global perspectives
  7. An increased clarity of language helps people become better communicators both in speaking and writing.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers know that there are biases that can influence their thinking. They monitor how they approach problem solving to keep these external influences in check.
  2. Researchers acknowledge the perspectives of others, which helps them be clear and precise in their language and writing.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Eighth Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Individual research projects begin with information obtained from a variety of sources, and is organized, documented, and presented using logical procedures

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. (CCSS: W.8.7)
    • Differentiate between paraphrasing and using direct quotes in a report
    • Organize and present research appropriately for audience and purpose
    • Present findings
  2. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (CCSS: W.8.8)
    • Differentiate between primary and secondary source materials
    • Document information and quotations; use a consistent format for footnotes or endnotes; and use standard bibliographic format to document sources
    • Write reports based on research that include quotations, footnotes or endnotes, and a bibliography or works cited page
  3. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (CCSS: W.8.9)
    • Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new"). (CCSS: W.8.a)
    • Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced"). (CCSS: W.8.9b)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do we use the computer and other media to answer questions about a subject?
  2. What is the difference between a primary and secondary source?
  3. How might you invent a new set of rules about the use and style of footnotes and endnotes which you find more creative?
  4. When is a primary source unethical to use?

Relevance & Application:

  1. New forms of chemicals and medicines are approved and given to people to save or improve the quality of lives only after research, bibliographies and citations are presented.
  2. Search engines can exclusively do their scanning for logical and related sources based on direct quotes, footnotes and quotations in the research community networks.
  3. An understanding of intellectual property can be obtained by participating and publishing online.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers know conducting reliable and valid research is an ethical responsibility.
  2. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: WHST.6-8.7-9)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Common fallacies and errors occur in reasoning

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Analyze the purpose, question at issue, information, points of view, implications and consequences, inferences, assumptions, and concepts inherent in thinking
  2. Determine strengths and weaknesses of their thinking and thinking of others by using criteria including relevance, clarity, accuracy, fairness, significance, depth, breadth, logic, and precision
  3. Identify common reasoning fallacies in print and non-printed sources
  4. Differentiate between valid and faulty generalizations

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do you identify common reasoning fallacies in your thinking and others'?
  2. Is a generalization usually acceptable in research reporting?
  3. When students are reading text, how do they monitor clarity and bias about what others are saying?
  4. What are common fallacies found in print and non-print?
  5. In a global conversation, how do assumptions and "common" reasoned thinking in research work?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Valid and reliable information is a signature of acceptable research.
  2. Researchers monitor the sources that are selected and check the credibility of the author or the source before it is used in their work.
  3. Online information can be published by anyone. Use rigorous evaluation processes to determine accuracy.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers acknowledge that there is faulty reasoning in communication, which keeps them aware of what they must do to make sure their work is clear and accurate.
  2. Researchers understand that making good decisions, based on careful reasoning, are important to the quality of life.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Quality reasoning relies on supporting evidence in media

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Take a position on an issue and support it using quality reasoning
  2. Analyze own or others' appeal for purpose, question at issue, information, points of view, implications and consequences, assumptions, and concepts
  3. Evaluate own or others' appeal for relevance, clarity, accuracy, fairness, significance, depth, breadth, logic, and precision
  4. Use appropriate media to demonstrate reasoning and explain decisions in the creative process

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does someone determine the logic of a position on an issue and support it with quality reasoning and assessment?
  2. How might someone use media to demonstrate multiple points of view?
  3. How does media play a role in fairness?
  4. How is quality reasoning enhanced when multiple mediums are used?
  5. Why is media used to portray different reasons about issues?
  6. What is an example of a time when you looked at two sides of an issue?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Comprehension strategies should be applied to resources used in supporting a position.
  2. Daily, people are confronted with issues and questions that require quality reasoning.
  3. Careful practice and review of reasoning to determine if it is faulty or reliable can help people as they make important decisions (such as voting or buying an expensive item).
  4. The ability to prove reasoning is helpful when explaining an opinion to someone else.

Nature Of:

  1. Quality reasoning enhances the creation of media.
  2. Clearly articulating thinking and reasoning is essential to communication.
  3. Researchers who listen to others in a fair-minded way increase their skills in reasoning.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Seventh Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Answering a research question logically begins with obtaining and analyzing information from a variety of sources

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation. (CCSS: W.7.7)
    • Identify a topic for research, developing the central idea or focus
    • Formulate open-ended research questions and identify potential sources of information (such as reference materials, electronic media), differentiating between primary and secondary source materials
  2. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (CCSS: W.7.8)
    • Use organizational features of electronic text (bulletin boards, search engines, databases) to locate information
    • Evaluate accuracy and usefulness of information, and the credibility of the sources used
    • Collect, interpret, and analyze relevant information; identify direct quotes for use in the report and information to summarize or paraphrase that will support the thesis or research question
  3. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (CCSS: W.7.9)
    • Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history"). (CCSS: W.7.9a)
    • Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g. "Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims"). (CCSS: W.7.9b)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do people use technology for accessing and recording information?
  2. What is the significance in using primary sources?
  3. When is a primary source unhelpful?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Inventors and scientist who create new technologies often use an inquiry-based process for understanding, drawing conclusions, and creating new knowledge.
  2. Writers follow ethical, legal, and copyright laws.
  3. Writers expand their competencies in using online or web-based resources to complement other written resources.
  4. Data organization is a skill that people use daily at home and at work.
  5. People who remain current with new resources successfully support their learning and application of new information.
  6. Use graphical organizers and other online tools to organize and analyze data.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers are always summarizing and synthesizing information.
  2. Intelligent researchers are both consumers and generators of information.
  3. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: WHST.6-8.7-9)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Logical information requires documented sources

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Synthesize information from multiple sources using logical organization, effective supporting evidence, and variety in sentence structure
  2. Write reports based on research that includes quotations, footnotes, or endnotes, and use standard bibliographic format to document sources or a works cited page
  3. Prepare presentation of research findings (written, oral, or a visual product) for clarity of content and effect, and grammatically correct use of language, spelling, and mechanics

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do writers summarize information in their own words?
  2. How do presenters determine if they will deliver their presentation in written, oral, or visual form?
  3. Which method is the most interesting to you when you are a member of the audience? Explain your thinking.
  4. Before beginning research, why is it important to organize and have a plan?
  5. How do you determine if your method of presentation is most effective?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Directional tools, manuals, and medical journals cite reference information accordingly.
  2. People judge others' work by what they write and what they say.
  3. Alternate means of copyrighting information are available online such as Creative Commons.
  4. When applying for jobs, applicants must use essential speaking and writing skills are for clear communication.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers use proper documentation to give credit to the work of others.
  2. Researchers use effective organizational skills when planning reports and presentations.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Reasoned material is evaluated for its quality using both its logic and its use of a medium

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Identify low-credibility stories by noticing vested interests or passion associated with content
  2. Obtain useful information from standard news stories
  3. Identify the purpose(s) or agenda of media presentations
  4. Consider alternative perspectives of media presentations

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What point(s) of view is (are) being dismissed or played down?
  2. How can people gain access to the point of view being negated (from those who most intelligently understand it)?
  3. How does using multiple perspectives and points of view expand people's thinking?
  4. What makes a story have low credibility?
  5. What makes a story or text have high credibility?
  6. What makes a presentation have clarity for the audience?
  7. How are people influenced by something in the news?
  8. What are the implications if people receive poor, unreliable information? How does that influence the quality of thinking?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Readers can identify low-credibility stories by noticing vested interests or passions associated with content experts.
  2. Consumers identify the purpose(s) or agenda of media presentations.
  3. Making fair-minded, informed decisions will help citizens contribute to society in a quality manner.
  4. Awards are given to a well-reasoned documentary about issues.
  5. Entertainment that is precise like judging games need legitimate processes to be seen as fun and credible.
  6. Voting booths, focus group tools, and electronic surveys take a reasoned series of questions and trap feedback, opinions, and choices.

Nature Of:

  1. The quality of thinking impacts people's lives.
  2. For thinking to improve, people must ask critical questions.
  3. Researchers ask themselves the questions, "What is the source for this information? Is it credible? How do I know that?"

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Sixth Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Individual and group research projects require obtaining information on a topic from a variety of sources and organizing it for presentation

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate. (CCSS: W.6.7)
    • Identify a topic for research, developing the central idea or focus and potential research question(s)
  2. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources. (CCSS: W.6.8)
    • Use a range of print and nonprint sources (atlases, data bases, reference materials, online and electronic resources, interviews, direct observation) to locate information to answer research questions
    • Locate specific information within resources using indexes, tables of contents, electronic search key words, etc.
  3. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (CCSS: W.6.9)
    • Follow established criteria for evaluating accuracy, validity, and usefulness of information
    • Select and organize information, evidence, details, or quotations that support the central idea or focus
    • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics"). (CCSS: W.6.8a)
    • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not"). (CCSS: W.6.8b)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What graphs, charts, photographs, and other access features will support my information?
  2. With all of the resources available to me, which one would I not want to be without? Why?
  3. What tools meet my needs as a researcher when working with data?
  4. How are these tools used by professionals in many fields?
  5. How do you hold yourself and others accountable for sharing the work load?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Using organizational strategies allows researchers to conduct quality research.
  2. Completing a research project in a group enables multiple perspectives.
  3. Being able to compromise and negotiate are important tools in life.
  4. Selecting the best methods for research will save time and help students become more proficient in writing and presentations.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers make sure research projects are organized in a cohesive manner.
  2. Working as an individual, small group or large group requires intellectual autonomy, intellectual integrity, intellectual humility, and so forth.
  3. Researchers must choose the right kind of question at issue or a purpose worth researching to conduct quality work.
  4. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8. (CCSS: WHST.6-8.7-9)

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Assumptions can be concealed, and require identification and evaluation

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Accurately identify own assumptions, as well as those of others
  2. Make assumptions that are consistent with one another
  3. Identify the natural tendency in humans to use stereotypes, prejudices, biases, and distortions
  4. Identify stereotypes, prejudices, biases, and distortions in self and thinking of others
  5. Accurately state the assumptions underlying the inferences they or others make, and then accurately assess those assumptions for justifiability

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do assumptions shape people's thinking?
  2. What assumptions do you have about your friends?
  3. What are the implications of someone's assumptions when meeting a new person?
  4. How do biases interfere with critical thinking?
  5. Describe a time when recognized that you had a bias?
  6. What assumption did you have about this class at the beginning of the year? How has that assumption changed?
  7. When is an assumption helpful?

Relevance & Application:

  1. When reading, personal assumptions affect how a reader understands and interprets the text.
  2. Helping ourselves be aware of biases will assist us in becoming productive, open-minded citizens.
  3. Historians shift their perspectives (different from their own) to analyze a situation.
  4. Good architects question their own thinking or actions to avoid making unsupported inferences or conclusions about the properties of new building materials.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers know the quality of thinking impacts their lives and the lives of others.
  2. Researchers know that assessing their assumptions is important as they make daily decisions.
  3. All reasoning is based on assumptions.
  4. For thinking to improve, it is necessary to ask critical questions.
  5. Assessing their assumptions is important as people make daily decisions.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Monitoring the thinking of self and others is a disciplined way to maintain awareness

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Determine strengths and weaknesses of their thinking and thinking of others by using criteria including relevance, clarity, accuracy, fairness, significance, depth, breadth, logic, and precision
  2. Take control over their thinking to determine when thinking should be questioned and when it should be accepted. (intellectual autonomy)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why is it important to understand what others are thinking?
  2. Describe a situation where you had a different perspective than one of your friends?
  3. Why do presenters have to be clear about their thinking for others to understand what they are trying to convey?
  4. If speakers want to share information, how do they determine what may be relevant to the conversation?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Students who monitor their thinking are able to select from various strategies to improve comprehension.
  2. When researchers listen to others, they increase their own learning.
  3. When people evaluate and assess their own thinking (metacognition), they gain clarity in their understanding.
  4. Use online tools to monitor the writings of professionals in areas of personal interest.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers monitor what they are thinking so that they can be fair and unbiased.
  2. Researchers' own clarity of thought brings clear communication in speaking and writing.
  3. Presenters exercise persistence with new ideas even though it feels frustrating or difficult at first.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. High-quality research requires information that is organized and presented with documentation

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. (CCSS: W.5.7)
    • Summarize and support key ideas
    • Demonstrate comprehension of information with supporting logical and valid inferences
    • Develop and present a brief (oral or written) research report with clear focus and supporting detail for an intended audience
  2. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources. (CCSS: W.5.8)
    • Develop relevant supporting visual information (charts, maps, graphs, photo evidence, models)
    • Provide documentation of sources used in a grade-appropriate format

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do writers summarize and synthesize information to reflect their ideas on a subject?
  2. How do writers organize information so they can reflect on the data gathered?
  3. How do writers determine what they want the audience to know and how can they measure it?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Researchers organize information and present it to others around a point of view.
  2. Researchers self-evaluate presentations so they can improve.
  3. Presentation tools include laser light pointer, animated shows, videotape, and clickers.
  4. Treasure seekers use depth radar, metal detectors, and fish school finders to determine the gather information. These are examples of logical and valid sources of supporting information.
  5. Effective research with actual documenting sources often persuades a court or a clerk or peers.
  6. Use online tools to present information to a broad audience.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers plan, present, and evaluate projects that have a specific point of view.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Identifying and evaluating concepts and ideas have implications and consequences

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (CCSS: W.5.9)
    • Accurately explain the implications of concepts they use
    • Identify irrelevant ideas and use concepts and ideas in ways relevant to their purpose
    • Analyze concepts and draw distinctions between related but different concepts
    • Demonstrate use of language that is careful and precise while holding others to the same standards
    • Distinguish clearly and precisely the difference between an implication and consequence
    • Distinguish probable from improbable implications and consequences
    • Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact]"). (CCSS: W.5.9a)
    • Apply grade 5 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., "Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point[s]"). (CCSS: W.5.9b)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do people decide on and use credible, relevant, appropriate, accurate, and valid information?
  2. How do people explain the implications and concepts used by themselves and others, including authors?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Concepts are used daily to make sense of the world. Lack of clarity with concepts perpetuates misunderstanding.
  2. Accurate in-depth comprehension relies on the ability to analyze and differentiate concepts.
  3. Messages communicated through reading and writing have implications that require exploration.
  4. Use electronic productivity tools to illustrate and convey concepts and your own ideas.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers know all reasoning is expressed through and shaped by concepts, and lead somewhere or have implications and consequences.
  2. Researchers understand the language used in documents is important.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Quality reasoning requires asking questions and analyzing and evaluating viewpoints

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Ask primary questions of clarity, significance, relevance, accuracy, precision, logic, fairness, depth, and breadth
  2. Acknowledge the need to treat all viewpoints fair-mindedly
  3. Recognize what they know and don't know (intellectual humility)
  4. Recognize the value of using the reasoning process to foster desirable outcomes (intellectual confidence in reason)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Could the author have been more specific? Could the author have given more details? Could the author have been more exact?
  2. Does the author's logic follow from the evidence?
  3. Did the author considered various points of view open-mindedly?
  4. Did the author determine the quality of his/her thinking and the thinking of others?
  5. What method can an author use to show he/she is treating all viewpoints fairly?
  6. When people are discussing topics with others, how do they indicate that they do not know the answer?
  7. How do people monitor their thinking for clarity and careful reasoning?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Asking questions of themselves and of others helps people reach quality understanding and reasoning.
  2. Putting individual thinking or the thinking of a favorite author/researcher aside to entertain other thinking is a fair-minded way to gain understanding.
  3. Acknowledging that further reading/research can increase my depth of understanding.
  4. Acknowledging that analyzing and assessing individual's thinking for quality reasoning fosters desirable outcomes.

Nature Of:

  1. Questions enable readers and writers to clarify information.
  2. Understanding when people know and when they do not know is a skill that good readers use when they monitor their thinking and reasoning.
  3. Throughout each day, people must pose quality questions to think about what they are reading or situations they are facing.
  4. All reasoning is expressed through and shaped by concepts, and leads somewhere or has implications and consequences.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fourth Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Comprehending new information for research is a process undertaken with discipline both alone and within groups

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. (CCSS: W.4.7)
    • Identify a topic and formulate open-ended research questions for further inquiry and learning
    • Present a brief report of the research findings to an audience
  2. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources. (CCSS: W.4.8)
    • Identify relevant sources for locating information
    • Locate information using text features, (appendices, indices, glossaries, and table of content)
    • Gather information using a variety of resources (reference materials, trade books, online resources, library databases, print and media resources)
    • Read for key ideas, take notes, and organize information read (using graphic organizer)
    • Interpret and communicate the information learned by developing a brief summary with supporting details
    • Develop relevant supporting visual information (charts, maps, diagrams, photo evidence, models)
  3. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (CCSS: W.4.9)
    • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character's thoughts, words, or actions]."). (CCSS: W.4.9.a)
    • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., "Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text"). (CCSS: W.4.9.b)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What facts do writers use to support their ideas and opinions?
  2. Which text features did you find the most useful as you wrote your report?
  3. As researchers begin a research project, how do they organize their resources as they gather them?
  4. How would you rate your own contributions to your group and why?
  5. How does a group resolve conflicts as it works on a group project?
  6. What evidence can students use to ensure that all members of a group make a strong contribution?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Writers plan, write, and present information to an audience that reflects their point of view.
  2. Students use a rubric to self-evaluate their project.
  3. Good readers ask good questions.
  4. Researchers who use multiple resources create a stronger research project.
  5. Use electronic tools to summarize and organize your thinking
  6. Use social networking tools to create and share your information.

Nature Of:

  1. Researcher plan, present, and evaluate projects that define a point of view.
  2. Before researchers begin a research project, they always have materials ready to take notes and highlight key ideas so that they can refer to them later.
  3. Researcher can use the glossary or appendix.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Identifying implications, concepts, and ideas enriches reasoning skills

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Consider negative as well as positive implications of their own thinking or behavior, or others thinking or behavior
  2. State, elaborate, and give an example of a concept (for example, state, elaborate, and give an example of friendship or conflict)
  3. Identify the key concepts and ideas they and others use
  4. Ask primary questions of clarity, significance, relevance, accuracy, depth, and breadth

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What are the implications or what might happen if someone takes action about an issue?
  2. What are the consequences of the action?
  3. How do students identify key concepts and ideas?
  4. How do students know they clearly understand the concepts and topics?
  5. What problems may arise if students use only their own thinking in their work?
  6. How do students include the perspectives, thinking, or opinions of others as they learn?
  7. How does elaborating help others understand a concept with more clarity?
  8. What strategy do readers use to help them identify the key concepts or main ideas of a text?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Concepts and ideas may reflect prior knowledge and experiences.
  2. Presenters are able to clarify what is useful when speaking or writing.
  3. When asked to share ideas, presenters must be precise and share key points so that others will be able to follow their information.
  4. People must ask questions of themselves and of others for the purpose of quality understanding and reasoning.
  5. People who put their thinking or the thinking of a favorite author or researcher aside to entertain other thinking use a fair-minded way to gain understanding.
  6. Good communicators acknowledge that further reading or research can increase their depth of understanding.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers understand that clear concepts and ideas must be supported with facts.
  2. All reasoning is expressed through and shaped by concepts, and leads somewhere or has implications and consequences.
  3. Good communicators are able to state the issue or concept, elaborate on it, and have an example to clearly express their thinking.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Third Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Researching a topic and sharing findings are often done with others

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic. (CCSS: W.3.7)
  2. Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. (CCSS: W.3.8)
  3. Interpret and communicate the information learned by developing a brief summary with supporting details
  4. Develop supporting visual information (charts, maps, illustrations, models)
  5. Present a brief report of the research findings to an audience

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What if research was always done alone?
  2. Why are visuals part of social studies, science, and other textbooks?
  3. Why is summarizing an important skill for all in a group?

Relevance & Application:

  1. People who build bridges and buildings work together to research and share ideas.
  2. Sports teams work together to discover the other teams' weaknesses.
  3. The members of a play recognize and present information using visuals and narrative tone.
  4. Researchers summarize information about a topic using reference materials.
  5. Researchers organize and present information using visuals and narrative.
  6. Compare and contrast Wikipedia with the content in library encyclopedia and resources.
  7. Using a collaborative online tool to share your work with others

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers scan visuals before they read text to help them focus their thinking.
  2. Researchers summarize information from different resources.
  3. Researchers look for evidence or supporting details to prepare for questions that others may ask after their presentation or during discussion.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Inferences and points of view exist

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Recognize that different sources may have different points of view
  2. Assess points of view using fairness, relevance, and breadth
  3. Determine the clarity, relevance, and accuracy of information
  4. Recognize that all thinking contains inferences from which we draw conclusions and give meaning to data and situations
  5. Assess inferences for accuracy and fairness
  6. Recognize what they know and don't know (intellectual humility)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How and why can points of view differ?
  2. What are the relevant points of view?
  3. How does one person's point of view compare to others?
  4. What information will support an inference?
  5. What happens if people use information that in not accurate?
  6. Why is useful to have many points of view on a topic?
  7. When is it difficult to have different points of view?

Relevance & Application:

  1. People use research to help support their ideas.
  2. Different sources have different points of view.
  3. People learn many things when they listen to others.
  4. Readers must learn to draw conclusions and make inferences because they help to improve comprehension.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers understand that points of view are based on the interpretation of the reader.
  2. Researchers understand reasoning is done from a point of view, based on data, information, and evidence, and contains inferences by which they draw conclusions and give meaning to data.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Second Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Reference materials help us locate information and answer questions

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Identify a variety of resources and the information they might contain (dictionary, trade book, library databases, Internet web page)
  2. Identify a specific question and gather information for purposeful investigation and inquiry
  3. Use text features to locate, interpret, and use information (table of contents, illustrations, diagrams, headings, bold type)
  4. Use a variety of multimedia sources to answer questions of interest
  5. Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (CCSS: W.2.8)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do people know information is relevant, significant, and accurate?
  2. How do people know which resource will provide the most accurate information?

Relevance & Application:

  1. There are many ways people look up and research unknown information. (Use a dictionary to find the meaning of unfamiliar words. Use an encyclopedia to look up information. Use the Internet to conduct research. Use interviews to gather information.)

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers use information to support their thinking.
  2. Researchers use a variety of reference materials to support learning new information.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Questions are essential to analyze and evaluate the quality of thinking

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations). (CCSS: W.2.7)
    • Ask primary questions of depth and breadth
    • Acknowledge the need to treat all viewpoints fair-mindedly

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Consider this reading from the point of view of someone new. What would be your opinion?
  2. What makes the situation of this reading possibly more complicated?
  3. What does it mean to be fair-minded?
  4. Why is it important to include other people's perspectives?
  5. How can readers be sure that the information is fair and unbiased? What do you say when it is not fair information

Relevance & Application:

  1. Professors share the skills of policemen and evaluate all of those with a points of view, asking questions, and determining a conclusion using the best evidence to support reasoning.
  2. Examples of asking good questions for real problems include a group of students wanting to start a book contest, and probing the difficulties and complexities of a book contest.

Nature Of:

  1. People who reason understand reasoning is done from a point of view, based on data, information, and evidence, and contains inferences by which they draw conclusions and give meaning to data.
  2. Researchers understand that for thinking to improve, it is necessary to ask critical questions.
  3. People who reason know thinking has potential strengths and weaknesses.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: First Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. A variety of resources leads to locating information and answering questions of interest

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write or dictate questions for inquiry that arise during instruction
  2. With peers, use a variety of resources (direct observation, trade books, texts read aloud or viewed) to answer questions of interest through guided inquiry
  3. Use text features (titles, illustrations, headings, bold type) to locate, interpret, and use information

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What resources can students use to answer the question?
  2. Why is it important to ask clear questions?
  3. What are other uses of text features?
  4. Why do authors use text features in their writing?
  5. Which text feature do you find most useful?
  6. How is using multiple resources helpful to readers or writers?
  7. Why does society have such a variety of reading materials?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Text features can help good readers when they are scanning material.
  2. Good readers pose questions while they read.
  3. Related questions occur when looking up your pet or selecting a new one.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers analyze critical questions and locate resources to answer the questions.
  2. Readers use text features to help them before they begin reading.
  3. Readers ask questions while they read to stay focused and help clarify thinking.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Purpose, information, and questions about an issue are essential steps in early research

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of "how-to" books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions). (CCSS: W.1.7)
    • Identify a clear and significant purpose for research (Is my purpose for researching frogs clear and is it important to understanding more about mammals?)
  2. With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (CCSS: W.1.8)
    • Evaluate information for clarity and accuracy

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What is the purpose? Is the purpose clear? Is the purpose important in relation to the question at issue?
  2. What is the question at issue? Is the question important and related to the purpose?
  3. Is the information being gathering important to the question at issue and purpose?
  4. Is the information free from error?
  5. How do students improve their thinking?
  6. Why is it important to be clear about the reason for studying a certain topic?
  7. When people are learning new information, why is it important that the data is correct?
  8. What might happen if people use incorrect or unsupported information?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Before readers begin to read, they ask themselves purposeful questions. (What is the purpose for learning how to read? Am I clear on the purpose for reading? Is reading important?)
  2. Zoologists know that new knowledge about animals and the discovery of new species require them to ask good questions every day.

Nature Of:

  1. People who reason understand that reasoning has a purpose, is based on information, and is an attempt to figure something out.
  2. Curiosity and thinking help people to discover and understand things that puzzle them.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Kindergarten
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. A variety of locations must be explored to find information that answers questions of interest

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Dictate questions that arise during instruction
  2. Use a variety of resources (such as direct observation, trade books, texts read aloud or viewed) to answer questions of interest through guided inquiry

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do people decide on a question to share and ask?
  2. How do people check questions to see if they are relevant and important to learning?
  3. If the author visited today, what would you ask?
  4. What resources can people use to help find possible answers to their question(s)?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Books are just one tool for finding answers.
  2. Life is full of questions and people need to know the avenues for answering them.
  3. Good readers ask questions while they are reading.
  4. Students use many different types of books to learn.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers ask questions when they look at the pictures and words in their books.
  2. Researchers continually find resources to support, challenge, or change thinking.
  3. Questions are where learning begins.
  4. People redirect their thinking when the first ideas they have don't make sense.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Identify purpose, information and question an issue

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them). (CCSS: W.K.7)
    • Identify a clear purpose for research or inquiry (If the class is learning about trees, is my need to know more about pets related?)
    • Identify a significant question they are trying to answer, problem they are trying to solve, or issue they are trying to resolve
    • Gather relevant information and check various information sources for accuracy (In a class discussion focused on butterflies, students ask questions related to a butterfly and the life cycle.)
  2. With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (CCSS: W.K.8)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What is the purpose? Is the purpose clear?
  2. What is the question at issue? Is the question important?
  3. Why is it important to solve problems?
  4. What was a time when you wanted to solve a problem but you didn't know how?
  5. Who helped you solve the problem? How did you feel when it was over?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Rumors relayed by a friend may not be true.
  2. Stories about a topic not related to the issue are interesting but not always important at the time.

Nature Of:

  1. All reasoning has a purpose based on information and is an attempt to figure something out.
  2. Researchers know that for thinking to improve, it is necessary to ask critical questions.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Quality of thinking depends on the quality of questions

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Ask primary questions of clarity, significance, relevance, and accuracy to improve quality of thinking
  2. State, elaborate, and exemplify the concept of fair-mindedness

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does this relate to the problem?
  2. How does that bear on the question?
  3. How does that help to resolve the issue?
  4. Is this the most important question to consider?
  5. How could check on that?
  6. How could we find out if that is true?
  7. How could verify or test that?
  8. Could the source illustrate what he/she means?
  9. What does it mean to be fair-minded?

Relevance & Application:

  1. People ask clarifying questions to think better.
  2. People think about clear ideas by asking questions.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers understand that for thinking to improve, it is necessary to ask critical questions.
  2. All reasoning has a purpose based on information and an attempt to figure something out.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Preschool
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Relevant information is different from non-relevant information

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Understand the difference between a question and a statement
  2. Begin to identify key features of reality versus fantasy in stories, pictures, and events
  3. Identify information that is relevant

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What is a question?
  2. What is a statement?
  3. What is real and what is make-believe?
  4. Which character do you think is the most important one in our story? Why do you think that?
  5. When someone asks a question, what do others in the group do?
  6. When someone shares information with another person, does it improve learning?
  7. How do readers know that a story is real?
  8. How do readers know if the information is relevant?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Good readers know the difference between sharing something they know (a statement) and asking about something they wonder about (a question).
  2. Good readers notice the features of imaginative text versus nonfiction.
  3. In a class discussion, students are able to decide if information about cats is relevant (related) to insects.
  4. Good readers know the difference between what is real and what is make-believe in the stories they read.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers know that the world is full of information.
  2. The question lays out the problem or issue and guides thinking.
  3. Researchers understand that for thinking to improve, it is necessary to seek out alternative ways to solve problems.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Problems can be identified and possible solutions can be created

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Generate questions and investigate answers about topics of interest
  2. Gather relevant information and apply it to their problem-solving process or current event
  3. Seek and generate alternative approaches to solving problems

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What is a question?
  2. How do questions help people learn?
  3. How do people gather information when problem-solving?
  4. What is a problem in what we are investigating?
  5. How do people solve the problem?

Relevance & Application:

  1. At home, people talk with others about things they know and also ask about things they wonder about.
  2. Family members ask questions that apply to real problems.
  3. When sharing about new pet, the child shares information that is related to the new pet. (The new puppy eats my shoe as opposed to the movie about dogs was funny.)

Nature Of:

  1. Researcher knows that the question lays out the problem or issue and guides people's thinking.
  2. Researchers understand that for thinking to improve, it is necessary to seek out alternative ways to solve problems.