New Colorado P-12 Academic Standards

Current Display Filter: Reading, Writing and Communicating - Fifth Grade

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Effective communication requires speakers to express an opinion, provide information, describe a process, and persuade an audience

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Describe a process and persuade an audience
    • Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes. (CCSS: SL.5.4)
    • Use appropriate eye contact and speak clearly at an understandable pace. (CCSS: SL.5.4)
  2. Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, sound) and visual displays in presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes. (CCSS: SL.5.5)
  3. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks. (CCSS: SL.5.6)
  4. Adapt language as appropriate to purpose: to persuade, explain/provide information, or express an opinion.

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do presenters make themselves clear when presenting ideas to others?
  2. How do presenters make a good impression when speaking with others?
  3. When presenters want to persuade audience members, what is important for them to remember?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Performing artists rehearse to perfect a performance before presenting to an audience.
  2. Video-recording and then viewing a presentation can help speakers understand what they do well and what they need to improve.
  3. Advertising agencies develop media campaigns (for TV, radio, the Internet, newspapers, and magazines) to persuade people to buy their products.
  4. Online resources offer samples of language use from diverse backgrounds.
  5. Webinars allow sharing among and between a broader audience.

Nature Of:

  1. Effective communicators can present a topic they know well and take the opposing side of an issue.
  2. Skilled presenters plan and prepare for the delivery of a presentation.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Listening strategies are techniques that contribute to understanding different situations and serving different purposes

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Listen to other's ideas and form their own opinions
  2. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly. (CCSS: SL.5.1)
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. (CCSS: SL.5.1a)
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles. (CCSS: SL.5.1b)
    • Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others. (CCSS: SL.5.1c)
    • Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions. (CCSS: SL.5.1d)
  3. Model a variety of active listening strategies (eye contact, note taking, questioning, formulating clarifying questions)
    • Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. (CCSS: SL.5.2)
  4. Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence. (CCSS: SL.5.3)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How is eye contact used to persuade others who are listening?
  2. When is it important to use volume as a tool in communication?
  3. Why is it difficult to accept someone else's point of view?
  4. What can speakers do to make people want to listen to what they have to say?
  5. How does body language tell a speaker that he/she is having the desired effect on the audience?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Using precise language increases clarity in communication. (A mediator listens to both sides of an argument and then gives a recommendation to solve the problem.)
  2. Utilizing online presentation tools engages audiences from across the world.
  3. Acknowledging, both verbally and in writing, what has been heard is critical when learning new information.

Nature Of:

  1. Good listeners seek to understand before they respond.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. Literary texts are understood and interpreted using a range of strategies

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use pre-reading strategies, such as identifying a purpose for reading, generating questions to answers while reading, previewing sections of texts and activating prior knowledge
  2. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (CCSS: RL.5.1)
    • Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text. (CCSS: RL.5.2)
    • Compare and contrast two or more character's points of view, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact). (CCSS: RL.5.3)
  3. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes. (CCSS: RL.5.4)
    • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to better understand each of the words. (CCSS: L.5.5c)
    • Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem. (CCSS: RL.5.5)
    • Describe how a narrator's or speaker's point of view influences how events are described. (CCSS: RL.5.6)
    • Locate information to support opinions, predictions, inferences, and identification of the author's message or theme
    • Compare and contrast the varieties of English (e.g. dialects, registers) used in stories, dramas, or poems. (CCSS: L.5.3b)
  4. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text (e.g., graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, poem). (CCSS: RL.5.7)
    • Compare and contrast stories in the same genre (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics. (CCSS: RL.5.9)
    • Use knowledge of literary devices (such as imagery, rhythm, foreshadowing, simple metaphors) to understand and respond to text.
  5. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4-5 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RL.5.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. When are thinking strategies important?
  2. How do readers adjust reading strategies to better understand different texts? What does it mean to be flexible?
  3. How are literary texts similar? How are they different?
  4. Why does point of view matter? How does it contribute to conflict? How can understanding point of view reduce conflict?
  5. If readers could remove inference skills from a person, what would be the consequences?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Comprehension skills help us question the author's purpose and view the world with a critical eye (using persuasion to influence our decisions and choices).
  2. Acknowledging multiple points of view help people as they meet and work with others.
  3. Foreshadowing is a skill that helps people prepare for future events because it creates a fundamental readiness.
  4. Authors use words to create pictures for the reader. As readers become aware of visual imagery, they increase their comprehension and use of metacognition.
  5. Graphical and multimedia elements of online text provide additional context and structural clues to increase comprehension.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers think about the characters and their traits and how they relate to each other.
  2. Readers recognize big ideas in literary text that reflect the human experience.
  3. Readers are always thinking about the words the author uses to paint pictures.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Ideas found in a variety of informational texts need to be compared and understood

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use Key Ideas and Details to:
    • Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (CCSS: RI.5.1)
    • Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text. (CCSS: RI.5.2)
    • Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text. (CCSS: RI.5.3)
    • Distinguish between fact and opinion, providing support for judgments made
  2. Use Craft and Structure to:
    • Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area. (CCSS: RI.5.4)
    • Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts. (CCSS: RI.5.5)
    • Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent. (CCSS: RI.5.6)
    • Use informational text features (such as bold type, headings, graphic organizers, numbering schemes, glossary) and text structures to organize or categorize information, to answer questions, or to perform specific tasks
  3. Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
    • Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently. (CCSS: RI.5.7)
    • Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s). (CCSS: RI.5.8)
    • Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. (CCSS: RI.5.9)
  4. Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
    • By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4-5 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RI.5.10)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How and when do readers adjust reading strategies to better understand different types of text?
  2. What text features are most helpful and why? How do text features help readers access information quickly?
  3. Why do authors use specific text features to convey a message?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Text features communicate key concepts.
  2. Skimming and scanning are important elements of learning and gathering information.
  3. The information age requires readers to process lots of information quickly and to determine importance.
  4. Online reading makes it challenging for students to learn to focus and follow hyperlinked texts only as appropriate to the information seeking task

Nature Of:

  1. Readers automatically retrieve information while they skim and scan text.
  2. Readers use text features before, during, and after reading to increase connections and comprehension.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Knowledge of morphology and word relationships matters when reading

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context. (CCSS: RF.5.3a)
  2. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (CCSS: RF.5.4)
    • Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: RF.5.4a)
    • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis). (CCSS: RF.5.4b)
    • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. (CCSS: RF.5.3c)
  3. Read and identify the meaning of words with sophisticated prefixes and suffixes
  4. Apply knowledge of derivational suffixes that change the part of speech of the base word (such as active, activity)
  5. Infer meaning of words using structural analysis, context, and knowledge of multiple meanings
  6. Read and identify the meaning of roots and related word families in which the pronunciation of the root does not change
  7. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. (CCSS: RF.5.4)
    • Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. (CCSS: RF.5.4a)
    • Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. (CCSS: RF.5.4b)
    • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. (CCSS: RF.5.4c)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How does a readers' knowledge of morphology help them effectively decode and understand multisyllabic words?
  2. Select one basic root word and find multiple affixes that extend the meaning of this root.
  3. How did the English language end up with so many "borrowed" roots from Latin and Greek?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Using knowledge of morphology supports the ability to decode and comprehend the meanings of multisyllabic words.
  2. Writing using multisyllabic words enhances the quality of the work.
  3. Decoding multisyllabic words allows readers to read fluently across the content areas.
  4. Exposure to affixes and their meanings increases vocabulary both in writing and speaking.

Nature Of:

  1. Readers use their understanding of morphology and word relationships to read texts with multisyllabic words.
  2. Readers make the connections that words have prefixes and suffixes that change the meaning.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. The recursive writing process contributes to the creative and unique literary genres for a variety of audiences and purposes

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. (CCSS: W.5.3)
    • Create personal and fictional narratives with a strong personal voice
    • Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. (CCSS: W.5.3a)
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations. (CCSS: W.5.3b)
    • Use a variety of transitional words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events. (CCSS: W.5.3c)
    • Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely. (CCSS: W.5.3d)
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events. (CCSS: W.5.3e)
  2. Write poems using poetic techniques (alliteration, onomatopoeia); figurative language (simile, metaphor); and graphic elements (capital letters, line length)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How can the use of correct vocabulary, grammar, usage, and mechanics add clarity to writing?
  2. How can various tools help a writer edit and revise written work?
  3. What do authors do to ensure that they have a topic and supporting details?
  4. How do graphic organizers or planning guides increase the effectiveness of a writer?
  5. What is the primary message that the author wants readers to interpret from the passage? Where is the evidence from the text?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Writing about personal experiences is an important step in expression.
  2. Including story elements in writing provides the reader with a more complete product.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers use all of the elements of a good story in their writing and have created a systematic plan for including each of them.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. The recursive writing process creates stronger informational and persuasive texts for a variety of audiences and purposes

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. (CCSS: W.5.1)
    • Include cause and effect, opinions, and other opposing viewpoints in persuasive writing
    • Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer's purpose. (CCSS: W.5.1a)
    • Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details. (CCSS: W.5.1b)
    • Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically). (CCSS: W.5.1c)
    • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. (CCSS: W.5.1d)
  2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. (CCSS: W.5.2)
    • Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. (CCSS: W.5.2a)
    • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic. (CCSS: W.5.2b)
    • Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially). (CCSS: W.5.2c)
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. (CCSS: W.5.2d)
    • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented. (CCSS: W.5.2e)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. What is the purpose of writing for different audiences?
  2. How does revising writing build new skills for writers?
  3. How did people gather information before the use of computers?
  4. If someone asked you the fastest, most efficient way to gather information about ________, what would you tell them and why?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Successful writing has specific organizational features, style, and craft elements. (Write a persuasive letter to an adult using mature tone and vocabulary. Select a planning guide that will be useful to plan writing.)
  2. Technology is used to assist in locating resources to support writers' work.
  3. Learning to summarize and write brief explanations is a lifelong skill that that will carry over into the workplace or college.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers think about the audience that they are writing for to help them organize their thoughts.
  2. Writers use technology as part of their resources to be more organized and thorough when they write.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Conventions apply consistently when evaluating written texts

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.5.2)
    • Use punctuation to separate items in a series. (CCSS: L.5.2a)
    • Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence. (CCSS: L.5.2b)
    • Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It's true, isn't it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?). (CCSS: L.5.2c)
    • Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works. (CCSS: L.5.2d)
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed. (CCSS: L.5.2e)
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.5.1)
    • Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences. (CCSS: L.5.1a)
    • Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses. (CCSS: L.5.1b)
    • Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions. (CCSS: L.5.1c)
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense. (CCSS: L.5.1d)
    • Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor). (CCSS: L.5.1e)
  3. Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style. (CCSS: L.5.1f)Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (CCSS: W.5.4)
  4. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (CCSS: W.5.5)
  5. With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of two pages in a single sitting. (CCSS: W.5.6)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do writers prepare their writing for different audiences?
  2. How would writing for our first grade buddies be different than the writing that you would do to convince or persuade our principal to let us have music day?
  3. How do writers organize their thinking to include the audience they are addressing?
  4. Which graphic organizer that we have used may assist you with your planning?
  5. What guidelines from our paragraph writing were the most helpful to you as you began to construct your paragraphs?

Relevance & Application:

  1. People can use an electronic thesaurus to enrich vocabulary in text. (Write letters to "writing pals" at a school in another community. Design a thank-you note for the custodian or parent volunteers.)
  2. Written language differs from spoken language in terms of vocabulary, structure, and context.

Nature Of:

  1. Writers are thoughtful of the language they use in their writing.

Content Area: Reading, Writing and Communicating
Grade Level Expectations: Fifth Grade
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

1. High-quality research requires information that is organized and presented with documentation

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. (CCSS: W.5.7)
    • Summarize and support key ideas
    • Demonstrate comprehension of information with supporting logical and valid inferences
    • Develop and present a brief (oral or written) research report with clear focus and supporting detail for an intended audience
  2. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources. (CCSS: W.5.8)
    • Develop relevant supporting visual information (charts, maps, graphs, photo evidence, models)
    • Provide documentation of sources used in a grade-appropriate format

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do writers summarize and synthesize information to reflect their ideas on a subject?
  2. How do writers organize information so they can reflect on the data gathered?
  3. How do writers determine what they want the audience to know and how can they measure it?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Researchers organize information and present it to others around a point of view.
  2. Researchers self-evaluate presentations so they can improve.
  3. Presentation tools include laser light pointer, animated shows, videotape, and clickers.
  4. Treasure seekers use depth radar, metal detectors, and fish school finders to determine the gather information. These are examples of logical and valid sources of supporting information.
  5. Effective research with actual documenting sources often persuades a court or a clerk or peers.
  6. Use online tools to present information to a broad audience.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers plan, present, and evaluate projects that have a specific point of view.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

2. Identifying and evaluating concepts and ideas have implications and consequences

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (CCSS: W.5.9)
    • Accurately explain the implications of concepts they use
    • Identify irrelevant ideas and use concepts and ideas in ways relevant to their purpose
    • Analyze concepts and draw distinctions between related but different concepts
    • Demonstrate use of language that is careful and precise while holding others to the same standards
    • Distinguish clearly and precisely the difference between an implication and consequence
    • Distinguish probable from improbable implications and consequences
    • Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact]"). (CCSS: W.5.9a)
    • Apply grade 5 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., "Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point[s]"). (CCSS: W.5.9b)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. How do people decide on and use credible, relevant, appropriate, accurate, and valid information?
  2. How do people explain the implications and concepts used by themselves and others, including authors?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Concepts are used daily to make sense of the world. Lack of clarity with concepts perpetuates misunderstanding.
  2. Accurate in-depth comprehension relies on the ability to analyze and differentiate concepts.
  3. Messages communicated through reading and writing have implications that require exploration.
  4. Use electronic productivity tools to illustrate and convey concepts and your own ideas.

Nature Of:

  1. Researchers know all reasoning is expressed through and shaped by concepts, and lead somewhere or have implications and consequences.
  2. Researchers understand the language used in documents is important.

Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations)

Concepts and skills students master:

3. Quality reasoning requires asking questions and analyzing and evaluating viewpoints

Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies

Students Can:

  1. Ask primary questions of clarity, significance, relevance, accuracy, precision, logic, fairness, depth, and breadth
  2. Acknowledge the need to treat all viewpoints fair-mindedly
  3. Recognize what they know and don't know (intellectual humility)
  4. Recognize the value of using the reasoning process to foster desirable outcomes (intellectual confidence in reason)

Inquiry Questions:

  1. Could the author have been more specific? Could the author have given more details? Could the author have been more exact?
  2. Does the author's logic follow from the evidence?
  3. Did the author considered various points of view open-mindedly?
  4. Did the author determine the quality of his/her thinking and the thinking of others?
  5. What method can an author use to show he/she is treating all viewpoints fairly?
  6. When people are discussing topics with others, how do they indicate that they do not know the answer?
  7. How do people monitor their thinking for clarity and careful reasoning?

Relevance & Application:

  1. Asking questions of themselves and of others helps people reach quality understanding and reasoning.
  2. Putting individual thinking or the thinking of a favorite author/researcher aside to entertain other thinking is a fair-minded way to gain understanding.
  3. Acknowledging that further reading/research can increase my depth of understanding.
  4. Acknowledging that analyzing and assessing individual's thinking for quality reasoning fosters desirable outcomes.

Nature Of:

  1. Questions enable readers and writers to clarify information.
  2. Understanding when people know and when they do not know is a skill that good readers use when they monitor their thinking and reasoning.
  3. Throughout each day, people must pose quality questions to think about what they are reading or situations they are facing.
  4. All reasoning is expressed through and shaped by concepts, and leads somewhere or has implications and consequences.